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Joseph G. Butler, Jr.

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Title: A Journey Through France in War Time

Author: Joseph G. Butler, Jr.

Release Date: January 28, 2007 [EBook #20464]

Language: English

Character set encoding: ISO-8859-1


Produced by Chuck Greif and the Online Distributed
Proofreading Team at http://www.pgdp.net (This file was
produced from images generously made available by the
Bibliothèque nationale de France (BnF/Gallica) at

[Illustration: Typical French Soldier in Uniform.]

A Journey Through France
in War Time


Member of The American Industrial Commission to France.


[Illustration: inscription by author.]

Copyright, 1917, by Joseph G. Butler, Jr., Youngstown, O. One hundred copies of this edition have been printed of which this is number 39

Second Edition

Dedication by author



Origin of the Purpose of the Trip.
Crossing the Atlantic.
Bordeaux and Paris.
Meeting England's Premier.
The Birthplace of Lafayette.
A Great Munitions Plant.
Art and Architecture of Aries.
Along the Mediterranean.
Towns in Southern France.
The Creusot Gun Works.
Approaching the Front.
Within Sound of the Guns.
The Story of Gerbeviller.
On the Main Front.
Reims and the Trenches.
Back to Paris.
On the Way Home—England.
On the Broad Atlantic.
The French Steel Industry in War Time.
Where War Has Raged.
General Joffre.
The Work of Reconstruction.
French Business Organizations.
The Carrel Method of Treating Wounds.
A City in an Army's Path.
Some impressions of France and the French.


Most of the illustrations listed, which may be seen in the scanned book at the Bibliotéque nationale de France site (http://gallica.bnf.fr/), are not of adequate quality and have not been included in this transcription.
(note of transcriber.)

Typical French Soldier in Uniform
Photograph of Commissioners, Taken on Train Leaving Paris for Limoges
The Author's Passport
Autograph Signatures of the Commission
Grand Theatre, Bordeaux. Closed Until the War Ends
Miniature French Flag Carried by the Author Through France. The Waving of This Flag by an American Aroused Much Enthusiasm
Lloyd George, Who Says "England is Fighting a Battle for Civilization"
Miss Winifred Holt, "Keeper of the Light House of France"
Ancient Bridge at Limoges—Built by the Romans Two Thousand Years Ago and Still in Use
Tapestry Workers at Aubusson
Lafayette's Deathbed, With Commission's Flag and Flowers
Monastery of St. Michael, at le Puy
Silk Tapestry Menu Used at Dinner to the Commission at St. Etienne Col. Rimailho With 155-mm. Gun (upper) and Famous 75-mm. Gun (lower) Perfected by Him
Women Employed in Munitions Factories
Arlesiennes—Types of Southern France
Old Roman Arena at Aries—Still Used for Bull Fights and Other Amusements
Shore of the Mediterranean Near Marseilles. In the distance Chateau D'If, Made Famous by Dumas
Types From the French Provinces
Monastery of Chartreuse
New 520-mm. Gun, Carrying Projectile Seven Feet in Length and Weighing 3,100 lbs., Seen at Creusot Works
German Prisoners Passing Through the Village of St. Etienne
The Lion of Belfort
Battlefield of La Chipotte, Showing Monument and Markers on Graves
Ruins of Gerbeviller
Sister Julie
Cathedral at Nancy
German Trenches Captured by the French
The Reims Cathedral Before its Destruction
Ruins at Reims. Upper and Lower Plates—The Cathedral. Middle Plate—The Archbishop's Palace
Key of Archbishop's Palace at Reims and Bone From Twelfth Century Tombs Opened by German Shells
Trenches Visited by the Commission
King Albert's Address to the Belgians
Photograph of King Albert of Belgium, with the Royal Autograph
French Marines Operating 75-mm. Gun on Shipboard
Nancy—Place Stanislas
Ruins of Village—St. Die
The Prefecture at Reims After Bombardment
Portrait in Tapestry—General Joffre
Ruins at Nancy
Trenches Occupied by French Soldiers
Proclamation Posted in Reims Just Before the French Fell Back to the Marne
Arrival of Wounded Soldiers at Chalons, on the Marne
Proclamation by the Mayor of Reims, Issued on the day the Germans Entered that City, September 4, 1914
First Order From the Invaders
Second German Proclamation
Citizens Warned of Danger
Citizens Warned that Hostages May be Hanged
Postal-card Painted by Artist Soldier in French Trenches


Of all that has been written, or is to be written, by Americans concerning the tragedy overwhelming the Old World, much must naturally be descriptive of conditions in France, since that country is, among those affected by military occupation, most accessible and most closely in sympathy with American ideals and American history.

While the ground covered by these pages may be, therefore, not unfamiliar, the motives prompting their preparation are probably unique. It has been undertaken at the request of friends, but not entirely for their pleasure; since the author hopes that those who read it may see in the patriotic devotion and courage of the French people something of the spirit that should animate our country, whose aspirations toward liberty the French aided even before they were themselves free.

Written in hours snatched for the task amid the press of other duties, these pages endeavor to present a simple, intimate and personal story of experiences enjoyed and impressions gained under most unusual circumstances and herein shared with my friends as one of the most interesting incidents of a long and busy life.

A Journey Through France in War Time



I N the Autumn and Winter of 1915, a body of distinguished and representative Frenchmen visited the United States, their object being to make an investigation of conditions here, having in mind the great need of France in war munitions, the steel in ingot and bar form very much needed for the manufacture of war materials, and the numerous other commodities necessary for prosecution of the war, which had been in progress more than a year.

The finances of France were also very much in evidence in the minds of the visitors.

The names and occupation of this French Trade Commission appear following:

  • Chairman—Monsieur Maurice Damour,
    • Secretary of the French Deputies' Commission on Appropriations.
    Monsieur Jacquez Lesueur,
    • Delegate of the Ministry of Agriculture.
    Monsieur L. Trincano,
    • Director of the Horological School of Besancon.
    Monsieur Jacquez de Neuflize,
    • Banker.
    Monsieur M. Chouffour,
    • of the Credit Francais.
    Monsieur L. Vibien,
    • Director of the National Bank of Credit.
    Monsieur E. Delassale-Thiriez,
    • Secretary of the Syndicate of Spinners.
    Monsieur M. Saladin,
    • Delegate of the Creusot Factory.
    Monsieur Joseph Guinet,
    • Delegate of the Chamber of Commerce of Lyons.

This Commission visited various parts of the United States, principally the great iron and steel centers, Pittsburgh, Youngstown and Chicago.

Much attention was shown the party in their journey through our land.

An introductory luncheon to this French Commission was given by The American Manufacturers Export Association at the Hotel Biltmore, New York, Tuesday, November 23rd, 1915. This luncheon was attended by a representative number of American manufacturers and bankers, and the object of the visitors fully discussed. On this occasion it was suggested by Mr. E. V. Douglass, the efficient secretary of the Export Association, that a return visit of Americans would be in order and would assist in accomplishing the object of the visitors. This suggestion was followed up early in 1916 and took form later on in the appointment and selection of the members of "The Commission Industrielle Americaine en France", the expedition being organized and financed under the direction of The American Manufacturers' Export Association, located at 160 Broadway, New York City.

This association has an active membership of over five hundred manufacturers, firms and corporations engaged in the production of all kinds of fabricated materials, from steel to women's lingerie.

The president of the association, Mr. E. M. Herr, of Pittsburgh, closely associated with the Westinghouse interests, was the moving spirit in creating and selecting the organization and formulating the plans and policy of the Industrial Commission, even to the extent of selecting the chairman.

The membership of the commission, their occupations, business and professional status, is given herewith:

M. W. W. Nichols, President; Vice President "American Manufacturers' Export Association." President, Adjount du Conseil d'Administration "Allis-Chalmers Mfg. Co., Inc.," New York, N. Y.

M. J. G. Butler, Jr., Fabricant de fer et d'acier, Vice-president "Brier Hill Steel Company", Youngstown, Ohio.

M. A. B. Farquhar, President "A. B. Farquhar Co., Ltd., York, Pa." Vice-president "National Chamber of Commerce of the United States."

M. G. B. Ford, New York, Urbaniste-Conseil.

M. S. F. Hoggson, Conseil-Expert en matieres et materiaux de construction; President "Hoggson Bros. & Co., Inc." New York, N. Y.

M. F. J. Le Maistre, Ingenieur-Chimiste-Conseil E. I. du Pont de Nemours et Co., Wilmington, Del.

M. J. R. Mac Arthur, President Mac Arthur Bros., Co., New York, N. Y.; Ex-Sous-Secretaire du Department d'Etat, Washington, D. C.

M. Le Dr. C. O. Mailloux, Chevalier de la Legion d'Honneur, Ingenieur-Electricien, New York, N. Y., Ancien President "American Institute of Electrical Engineers."

M. C. G. Pfeiffer, Vice-president "Geo. Borgfeldt et Co.," New York, Importateurs et Exportateurs; Member of "National Chamber of Commerce of the United States."

M. J. E. Sague, Poughkeepsie, N. Y., Ingenieur-Mecanicien. Ancien New York Public Service Commissioner; Ancien Vice-president "American Locomotive Co.", New York, N.Y.

M. E. A. Warren, Expert en matieres et precedes textiles; Vice-president "Universal Winding Co.", Boston, Mass.

M. E. V. Douglass, Secretaire General; Secretaire "American Manufacturers' Export Association."

M. E. Garden, Secretaire Francais.

[Illustration: Photograph of Commissioners Taken on Train Leaving Paris for Limoges.]

This roster is taken from the previously mentioned booklet, "The Commission Industrielle Americaine en France." The object of the Commission is carefully set forth in the opening, in French, and for the benefit of readers who speak English only, a translation follows:

The American Industrial Commission in France, organized under the auspices of the American Manufacturers' Export Association, with the cordial approval of France and of the United States, principally for a sympathetic study of industrial and commercial conditions in France.

At the time of the visit to America by the French Commercial Commission in the winter of 1915-1916, the idea was proposed to different American industrial and commercial associations, to organize a similar mission for the purpose of returning this visit to France.

This idea was taken up by the American Manufacturers' Export Association, which, incorporated in 1911, numbers among its membership more than five hundred organizations of great importance in the American industrial world. This organization is co-operative in character, with the general idea of developing and maintaining commercial relations between the United States and foreign countries.

The importance of the proposed mission becomes more apparent through a detailed analysis of its program, which comprises a study of the most practical means of utilizing the resources and experience of America for the reconstruction which France desires to make of its communities and of its industries, during and after the war.

The Association has succeeded in organizing a commission made up of men well qualified to render the service desired.

The American Industrial Commission in France will strive to establish an active co-operation with its French associates, with a view of developing the commercial and industrial relation already existing between the two nations and to make them more cordial and more satisfactory on both sides.

The Association hopes to succeed through the work of the Commission in contributing in some measure to this happy result, and at the same time strengthen the friendship and sympathy which has existed between these two nations for more than a century.

A circular issued by The American Manufacturers' Export Association is of interest in this connection and was sent to members under consideration and to manufacturers, soliciting subscriptions for the expenses of the Commission. This circular is herein reproduced.


August-September, 1916


Primarily, to make a thorough and technical investigation of present conditions in France looking to the reconstruction and re-organization of her communities and industries which will take place during and after the war to an extent unparalleled in history, and further, to determine the best and most complete manner in which the United States may contribute from her resources to accomplish these results; to arrange for largely increased purchases of French products and fully reciprocal commercial relations.

In the cause of a thorough neutrality, it should be distinctly understood that this undertaking is based upon cordial proposals which came to us unsolicited, and that we stand ready to do likewise in all other directions under similar conditions.


Commissioners of known technical experience—members of the American Manufacturers' Export Association and others—will be chosen to investigate the present industrial situation in France in order to aid by American brains, energies and facilities the rehabilitation of a structure seriously damaged, and in many instances destroyed, by the ravages of war.

Extraordinary and unprecedented facilities have been granted by the French Government to aid the Commission in its endeavors, affording every assurance of a successful outcome.

An official account of the Commission's visit, with a summary of conclusions regarding each phase of its investigation, will later be reported and published for general distribution under the authority of the American Manufacturers' Export Association.


It is intended to include all the industries of the United States concerned in French trade under the following classifications:

I.Prime Movers: (Steam, Gas and Oil Engines; Pumping Engines, Steam and Hydraulic, Turbines, Condensers, Generators and all other adjuncts.) Heavy Machinery: (Rolling Mills, Iron and Steel Products, etc.)
II.Machine-Tools, Wire, Transmission and Textile Machinery.
III.Milling Machinery: (Flour and Saw Mills; Cement, Milling, Smelting, Agricultural and Road Machinery.)
IV.Electrical Apparatus.
V.Transportation: (Locomotives, Cars, Naval Vessels, etc.)
VI.Importers: (Textile, including Laces; Dry-Goods of all kinds; Porcelains, Groceries and Wines; Toys.)
VII.Synthetic Products based on chemical processes; Chemicals, Explosives, etc.
IX.Factory Architects, Engineers and Contractors.


Commissioners of broad experience in their respective lines will be chosen—men of national reputation who will lend dignity and standing to the enterprise and guarantee a result both conclusive and effective.


With the co-operation of the French authorities an itinerary has been tentatively prepared covering the principal industrial cities and sections of France and consuming, together with ocean passages approximately 60 days. A definite program is being arranged with the cordial aid of French chambers of commerce and the great economical associations in the localities to be visited, and this work is now proceeding with the authority and full approval of the French Government. Railway and other transportation throughout France will be provided for the American Commission by the Government. The proposed visit has aroused intense interest on every side, and extensive plans have been made for the reception and instructive entertainment of the American delegation.


One of the commissioners will be appointed to take general charge of the Commission on behalf of the American Export Association and it will be the duty of this representative to collaborate with the French authorities, appointed for this purpose, in the consummation of plans; to assume executive charge of the work of the Commission; and to organize the details necessary to the preparation of the official report to be issued for the full benefit of American industry.

To insure absolute regularity and efficiency of progress the Commission as a body, will be subject to this Commissioner General.

My connection as a member of the Commission came about through the suggestion made to Mr. E. M. Herr, by Mr. James A. Farrell, President of the United States Steel Corporation, Mr. E. A. S. Clarke, President of the Lackawanna Steel Company, and Mr. Willis Larimer King, Vice-president of The Jones & Laughlin Steel Company.

I was not the first choice, however, as a number of gentlemen had been previously considered and had either declined the honor or had been eliminated from the list of candidates. The pressure upon me from numerous friends in the steel business to accept the task was persistent and continuous, and upon receipt of a telegram from Mr. Farrell, telling me, within a week of the proposed sailing of the Commission, that if I did not accept, the great iron and steel industries of the United States would be unrepresented, the matter was settled and I decided that it was due to my fellow manufacturers, many of whom had been kind to me over a long period of time and who had helped me in many ways, that I should accept the position. I notified Mr. Herr to that effect just one week prior to the date of sailing.

[Illustration: The Author's Passport.]

I had intended to take an active part in the political campaign pending and such a trip involved keen disappointment in this connection, as I felt that a change of the administration was necessary for the best interests of the country. I had voted for every Republican president from Lincoln to Taft and wanted very much to be somewhat instrumental in the election of Mr. Hughes.

The McKinley Birthplace Memorial needed my attention, as well as other matters of a public nature, to say nothing about the various business enterprises in which I am still active.

All these obligations were temporarily abandoned and hurried preparations were made for the long and, as thought by many, dangerous journey.



THE French Line was selected by the sponsor for the trip as being the safest route and somewhat as a compliment to the French nation. Passage was engaged for the entire party on the Lafayette, booked to sail from New York, August 26th, 1916, at 3 P. M., destination, the French Port Bordeaux.

I reached New York Friday morning, August 25th, and immediately set about getting my passport properly vised by the French Consul. This was accomplished with less difficulty than one would imagine and the precious document finally made ready.

A luncheon was given the Commission at the Hotel Biltmore at noon by Mr. E. M. Herr, which gave the members their first opportunity to become somewhat acquainted. Addresses were made by Mr. Herr and others connected with the launching of the enterprise. We were told to be neutral, and this was emphasized by the chairman from the day of sailing until the journey was over. I received this admonition with a decided mental reservation. It impressed me as being incongruous and entirely out of place for a delegation of Americans to plan a visit to France and not be in accord with that sorely stricken people. It occurred to me also, then and there, that if the Commission expected to accomplish its object it would be necessary to show a genuine sympathy with the Allied cause, and I acted on this theory during the entire journey. A majority of the members cherished the same sentiments, which most of them managed to conceal with more or less success.

Arriving at the dock of the Compagne General Transatlantique, soon after noon on Saturday, August 26th, an inspection of the luggage was made. This was a tedious and thorough process, requiring the unpacking and repacking of all the contents of the trunks and valises, thereby insuring the absence of dynamite, bombs and other destructive material. Numerous devoted friends were on hand to say good bye and "bon voyage", but they were permitted only on the dock.

Passports were carefully examined by a group of inspectors and the voyagers were permitted to go on board the waiting steamer.

The members of the Commission were next grouped together, photographed and motion-pictured, thus beginning the publicity considered necessary for the success of the enterprise.

The departure of the Lafayette was a stirring affair. Promptly at three o'clock P. M. the vessel moved away from her moorings, amidst the din of the band, the waving of flags, the whir of the movie machine, the blowing of whistles and the cheers of friends of the passengers.

Soon after sailing the members of the Commission were formally introduced to each other and, strange to relate, with but a single exception, no two of the party had ever met before beginning the journey.

It was discovered that several of the commissioners—myself not among the number, spoke excellent French. This proved a great advantage to the French-speaking members during the journey and, incidentally, to the members who understood English only.

Among the passengers aboard and attached to the Commission was Mr. Harrison Reeves, a noted war correspondent, formerly connected with The New York Sun. He had been several times at the Front in France in a representative capacity, had lived a number of years in France, spoke and wrote the French language fluently and has a fine personality. His presence was much appreciated, his knowledge of recent events in France and his large acquaintance with men of affairs proving invaluable to the commissioners.

On Monday, August 28th, a meeting of the Commissioners was called for organization and consultation. At this meeting various committees were agreed upon and appointed by the chairman. It was also arranged that daily sessions were to be held and the work of the commission laid out so far as possible in advance.

The chairman had prepared an address outlining the duties of the Commission, which is here reproduced.

Aboard Steamship "Lafayette" En-route to France,

August 28th, 1916.

To the Members of the American Industrial Commission to France.


We are bound on an errand of constructive friendship. Through the encouragement of the authorities of France and the public spirit of American business men, we are enabled to go on this mission of good will and service.

France, in her griefs and her joys, is always a land of inspiration; she is the classic creator and promoter of the arts which make for civilization. In many ways American life is the richer because France exists.

What greater service can a representative company of thinking Americans render to their land than to visit and touch at first hand the sources of so much that is valuable to the world, and to carry home lessons and messages which may easily be potent in forming stronger ties in the old time intimate relationship between our country and France.

Primarily, we go, then, to learn in meeting our oversea friends face to face, and, if our errand succeeds, to be of any service possible. The great question then becomes: how can we serve best? By keeping our eyes, ears, minds and spirits open and alert to the facts and the possibilities founded on such facts which unfold before us in the course of our visit. Our trip has been announced as an investigation or survey of the industrial situation in France.

Our mission appears to be to examine the present economic life and activities in France, and, in a study of such life as we find it, endeavor to ascertain what the future is likely to bring forth for industrial France.

It is obvious that an intelligent examination of the rich economic development of France must yield valuable byproducts of observation and instruction. The human values in this economic structure are of fundamental importance; civil, social and general economic progress proceeding from the French economic effort will be of wide interest to us.

Undoubtedly in the coming years France will make extraordinary strides in industrial progress. She is planning—indeed has already under way, many projects of manufacture, transportation, housing, labor-conservation and municipal life; projects of deep interest and importance to every American business man and citizen. It may be our special privilege to be taken behind the scenes of this tremendous expansion, see some of the beginnings and, if we are fortunate, to make such contribution as France may desire from the good will, experience and certain peculiar knowledge we can offer for her use in any way that may enable her to attain the end she seeks.

In this commission we represent something more than a body of men who have been selected because of special distinction in fields of their own. Each commissioner touches large circles of interest and capacity. If the opportunity comes to us to indicate to French business up-builders how to come into sympathetic working relations with the enterprise and progressive affairs of our own country, we shall achieve the high purpose of our Commission.

(Signed) W. W. NICHOLS,

Chairman of the Commission.

Before leaving New York a handsome booklet had been prepared and printed. The brochure contained the names of the commissioners, their public records, halftone portraits and a carefully prepared statement of the objects of the expedition. Twenty-five hundred copies were printed and were to be delivered on board the Lafayette by the printer. After sailing, it was discovered by a thorough search that the much needed booklets were not on board. These documents were for distribution after our arrival in France and were sorely missed.

Subsequently the booklet was produced in Paris, but in somewhat different form, and it was near the end of the journey before the duplicate copies were ready for distribution. The loss of the American made edition was a serious handicap.

A word or two about the personnel of the Commission. Mr. Nichols, the chairman, is a man about sixty with a grave, clerical appearance, formerly a professor or teacher and at one time superintendent of the Chicago Telephone Company. A man of various business experiences, at present connected with the Allis Chalmers Company in its New York office. He is excessively cautious and delivered a daily lecture on neutrality, fearing evidently that some of the members might break away from his idea of being strictly neutral and thus thwart or defeat the objects of the Commission. Mr. Nichols is thoroughly honest and conscientious; he had the success of the venture very much at heart and labored from his viewpoint to that end, priding himself in his broken French.

Mr. John R. MacArthur was a member of the Philippine Commission, is a fine French scholar, a ready conversationalist in both English and French, and has a keen sense of humor. He was a constant help to the non-French speaking members of the Commission.

Dr. Mailloux is an electrical engineer of established reputation and large experience. He had been in previous commissions to all parts of the world; a thorough French scholar, he had lived many years in France and had done much work for the French Government. His knowledge of the French people was invaluable to some of his fellow commissioners but was not utilized to its full extent.

Mr. Edward A. Warren, of Boston, represented the textile industry and is well posted in that line. He was the modest man of the commission, rarely asserting himself and deferring too much to the views of his companions. He is possessed of rare good common sense, but, as stated, kept himself too much in the background, thereby lessening his influence in the work of the commission.

Mr. James A. Sague, at one time vice-president of The American Locomotive Company; is a technically educated man, genial and companionable, and was a useful personage on the commission.

Mr. A. B. Farquhar, is a real veteran of the Civil War, nearly eighty years of age but possessing remarkable physical vigor. He was the friend of Lincoln, heard the Gettysburg address delivered, saved his town (York, Pennsylvania) from destruction by the Confederates, and had much to do with the reconstruction period after the War. He labored under the difficulty of defective eyesight, this somewhat impairing his usefulness on the Commission.

Mr. N. B. Hoggson, a gentleman of infinite jest, genial and persuasive; a great mixer and constant worker, proved a very useful member of the commission in diving after facts and making notes thereof.

Mr. Geo. B. Ford, a well known architect of the firm of Geo. B. Post & Company, New York, was a rather quiet undemonstrative member, but a worker and investigator in his particular line. His observations and recommendations should have great weight in the work reconstructing and rebuilding the destroyed portions of France.

Mr. F. J. LeMaistre, a chemical engineer, quite scientific; not particularly unselfish in his dealings with his fellow commissioners, was nevertheless a useful member of the commission, contributing much to its success. He is connected with the duPont Powder Company in an important capacity. His chemical knowledge came into good play in the journeyings of the Commission.

Mr. C. G. Pfeiffer was, physically, the giant of the Commission. An exporter and importer, a splendid French scholar, utilized on all occasions when a knowledge of French was needed; a hard, conscientious worker, quite close to the chairman and of decided use to the head of the Commission from start to finish—he frequently steered the ship from shallow shoals and dangerous rapids.

Mr. E. V. Douglass, the efficient secretary of the Commission, is entitled to much commendation. His work was heavy and unending. To look after a body of men, many of whom he had never previously met; to deal with their idiosyncrasies and at times somewhat unreasonable demands, and come through with success, was no mean task. Mr. Douglass lived in France and had a wide acquaintance. His knowledge of the French language was of very great service. I think all members of the Commission will unite in saying; "Well done good and faithful servant."

Mr. Emile Garden, the French secretary of the Commission, was very helpful to Mr. Douglass as well as to the chairman.

Mr. Harrison Reeves, a well known writer and newspaper correspondent, had special charge of the publicity work of the Commission and was present and took part in all the meetings of the Commissioners, a trusted attache of the enterprise.

Monsieur Henri Pierre Roche, a French soldier, on leave of absence, one of the editors of the Paris Temps, was also a valuable attache. He accompanied the commission on its travels and returned with the commissioners to America for the express purpose of translating into French, for final distribution in France, the report of the Commission.

Our first news from home came by wireless on Tuesday, August 29th. It disclosed that Germany was reaching out for Rumania. We also got more or less news about the railroad troubles.

At one of our meetings Mr. Nichols presented a letter which Governor Herrick had written to him and which proved to be quite useful. We found, wherever we travelled abroad, that the name of Governor Herrick was a household word. This letter is reproduced as follows:—

August 24th, 1916.

Mr. W. W. Nichols,
The American Manufacturers' Export Association, 50 Church St., New York, N. Y.

My dear Mr. Nichols:—

It gives me great pleasure to take advantage of your kind invitation to send by the American Industrial Commission of the American Manufacturers' Export Association, a message to Industrial France.

France has met in a way that evokes the admiration of the whole world, even of her enemies, the recurring emergencies of this greatest of wars. The patriotic self-sacrifice, the valor, the uncomplaining endurance, the ingenuity which the French people have shown during these two years of war reveal what is in truth the "birth of a new nation". To an extent which scarcely seemed possible, France has discovered within herself the resources of men and materials with which to meet the demands of the struggle.

Europe has learned many important lessons, not only in military science but also in industrial efficiency, since 1914. She has much to impart to the United States in these matters. Yet such has been the wide-spread destruction of men and property that France, and indeed all Europe, must needs call upon other countries after the war for assistance in rehabilitating her industrial and commercial life. France will need to draw upon our stores of food until all her fields are again producing; she will need our materials for reconstruction where war has brought waste and desolation; she will need our machines and implements to carry on the manifold pursuits of agriculture, manufacturing and commerce. To France, as to all the countries where war is causing destruction, America opens her vast stores of goods.

The American Industrial Commission will be doing service not only to Europe and to America but to all humanity, if it can discover the ways by which the wealth that nature has so lavishly showered upon the New World, may be most effectively poured out for the restoration of the Old World.

Very sincerely yours,

The time on the boat was largely occupied in meetings of the commissioners and the formulation of plans for the work in hand; committees were appointed and a great deal of work done.

Among the various discussions, the subject of people living to a great age in Bulgaria was brought up. Specific instances were noted; one, a pair of Bulgarian twins both of whom lived to be one hundred and twenty years of age and both died on the same date. It was suggested that the two oldest members of the Commission, Mr. Farquhar and myself, should emigrate to Bulgaria and take a fresh start.

The Lafayette had, mounted on its stern, one of the favorite French guns known as a 75-millimeter. The captain told us he had orders to fire on the Deutschland if the submarine happened to turn up. The first officer, under instruction from the captain, showed the operation of the gun to the commissioners. This was very interesting; everything was done except to fire off the gun; all the maneuvers were gone through and we discovered on the lower deck enough shells to fight a good sized battle.

On Saturday, previous to landing, a bazaar was held on the boat for the benefit of the French hospitals. This was a very successful affair; contributions were made or supposed to be made by all the passengers. Among other things, I donated a quart bottle of champagne. This was sold at auction, the first bid was one dollar, made with the understanding that the last bid was to be no higher, but was to get the champagne. These bids continued until the bottle finally brought seventy-five dollars. It turned out to be a very good article with all that.

We were also informed before entering port that we were protected by two submarine destroyers.

Autograph Signatures of the Commission.

We discovered on arising, Sunday morning, September 3rd, that we were in the Bay of Biscay and two cruisers were circling around and gradually escorting us into the port of Bordeaux. We were told subsequently that the wireless apparatus has been disconnected and we had been chased by a submarine.

The first land seen was the shore of Spain, the course of the vessel having been diverted on account of pursuit by the submarine. At four P. M. on Sunday a commission from Bordeaux came out in a tug boat to meet us. This delegation consisted of the prefect of Bordeaux district, the mayor of the city and other notables. They boarded the boat and we entertained them with a dinner party. We reached the Bordeaux dock about ten o'clock on Sunday evening, but did not land until the following morning.



UPON going ashore, we discovered on the docks a number of stalwart laborers. We wondered why they were not in the army, but were told they were Spaniards. The docks were covered with motor trucks from Cleveland, piles of copper bars, and also very large quantities of munitions and barbed wire made by The Youngstown Sheet & Tube Company and the American Steel & Wire Company. We also saw on the docks steel bars furnished by our own Brier Hill Steel Company.

We were first impressed by the very large number of women employed. We visited several telegraph offices and all were "manned" exclusively by women. We also saw women driving large army trucks and milk carts, and women selling newspapers, some of them anywhere from seventy to eighty years of age. Newsboys are apparently unknown in France.

We were given a reception by the Bordeaux Chamber of Commerce, and quite an address was delivered by the president.

We then visited the docks, which are extensive. The improvements contemplated will make Bordeaux one of the great world ports. In going about the streets we were struck by the number of women in mourning; in fact I can hardly recall any women, except the servants in the hotel, who were not in mourning. The shop windows were filled with mourning goods and people passing on the streets were either women in mourning or soldiers home on leave of absence, many of them crippled.

We were next taken to the prison camp where the prisoners of war were held. We happened to reach it when the prisoners were having a siesta. There were about four thousand in the camp, some hired out to contractors. We talked to some of these contractors, who in turn had talked with the prisoners, and were told that a great many of them were such voluntarily; that is to say, they were very glad to surrender when the opportunity presented. The prisoners were mostly Germans, but there were some Austrians and a few Bavarians. The French people never speak of them as Germans; they always call them "Boches", which, rendered in English, means vandal. They were fat and healthy and apparently contented.

[Illustration: Grand Theatre, Bordeaux. Closed until the War Ends.]

In the evening at Bordeaux a banquet was given in honor of Monsieur Gaston Doumergue, Minister of Colonies. All the commissioners were invited. On my left was Monsieur Etienne Hugard, Vice-president of the Chamber of Commerce and a soldier who had been in battle within a week previous. On my right sat Monsieur G. Chastenet, Senateur de la Gironde. Very choice wines were served and the champagne was reserved for the last. There was a speech by the Mayor and a response by the Minister of Colonies. We were given information as we went along and some of this I will record. We were told that a great many submarines had been captured by the French in nets. The popular impression is that when captured the submarines are left under water six or seven days, then brought up to the surface and the bodies of the officers and seamen, who in the meantime have died, are either burned or buried. The submarine is then manned by a French crew and thus turned into the French service.

We made some inquiries in regard to the labor situation and we were informed that before the war a common laborer received four francs per day, about eighty cents of our money, and that they are now receiving five francs. The women received two francs before the war and they are now receiving three. There are no labor unions in Bordeaux or in the vicinity.

We had here our first visit from newspaper correspondents. A number of important Paris papers were represented, with the New York Herald, the Chicago Tribune and other leading American papers. We met the general of the Gironde and the marine official. We were told that at any of these functions we were not to mention the names of the officials to whom we were introduced, and this enabled us to talk quite freely. One of the generals whom I met at this banquet said that the war would end in December, 1917.

On Tuesday, September 5th, the Bordeaux Fair was dedicated. The commission was invited and we took part in the exercises. These fairs are an annual event in many parts of France. There is a very large theatre in Bordeaux, which has not been opened since the war. We were given an invitation to enter it. It is certainly finer than any theatre I had seen previously.

We were then taken to the celebrated wine vaults of Bordeaux, owned by J. Calvert & Co. and Bardin & Gustier. Some of these wines date back to the early part of the last century and the vintages are all the way from five to ninety years old. There were sixty thousand casks of wine stored and about ten million bottles of champagne. The money value of the stocks is very large. We were told that America was one of the best customers for these high grade wines.

In the evening we attended a reception to the Minister of Colonies at Ville de Bordeaux. This was a very enjoyable affair and we met some noted French people.

Wednesday, September 6th, was the birthday of Lafayette. We had been invited by the American Chamber of Commerce to assist in their celebration at Paris, but were unable to reach that city in time.

Instead of going to Paris on this date we visited the Chateau Margaux, built in 1780. We were shown through the private vaults. We met the Duchess, a most charming personage, a grandmother at the age of thirty-five, a very plain, unassuming lady. I supposed up to the time I was introduced to her that she was a newspaper correspondent. During the tour through these private vaults, the guide discoursed on the making of wine, from the planting of the vines to the bottling and selling process. This was all very interesting.

The different sized bottles of wine were described as follows: half pints for sick rooms, pints, and then quarts, with all of which we were familiar. He then told us of the magnum, holding two quarts; the Jereboam, holding three quarts, the imperial, holding five quarts, and the Nebuchadnezzar, holding the Lord only knows how many quarts—pretty nearly as big as a barrel.

In the port of Bordeaux were a great many neutral boats. On the sides of these boats in very large letters, appeared the names of the boats and the flag of the particular country, also the name of the country. We saw vessels from Italy, Greece, Denmark, Sweden, Norway and Holland. We were told that no nation at the beginning was prepared for war except Germany. It seemed to be the unanimous opinion that the war would last at least one year longer.

Monsieur Gustier, president of the Bordeaux Chamber of Commerce, departed at one o'clock for Paris in a de luxe car. This car was the one usually occupied by President Poincaire and known as the president's car.

Before departing we were given a noonday luncheon at the Hotel Terminal by the "Committee General Franco-American Society."

We were now for the first time told that we were being entertained by the French government, through its different chambers of commerce. On the way, two of the general officers of the railroad company boarded the train.

We noticed on passing through the country, that all the people working on the farms were either old men, women or children, the young men all being in the army.

One of the things, earnestly desired by the French people is to increase the birthrate. A bonus system has been proposed as well as all sorts of plans for increasing the size of families.

We learned here that four million men and women in France were engaged in the wine industry.

We arrived in Paris at 10:30, September 6th. The only light visible was the moon. The Hotel de Crillon, formerly a castle occupied by the French nobility and transformed into a very comfortable and aristocratic hotel, was our stopping place.

Early on Thursday morning, September 7th, I paid my first visit to the American Ambulance. I met Dr. Metcalf, a former Youngstown physician. He has charge of the New York and the Frank H. Mason wards. At the time we were there six hundred soldiers were under treatment. Deaths run about two per cent.

This was my first visit to an army hospital and the impression will never be forgotten. There were men in all different stages of wounds, some of them convalescent; others on the dividing line; with others the treatment was just starting. This American Ambulance is considered the best managed hospital in all France. General Frank H. Mason, who had been consul general and in the consular service more than thirty years, had charge of it up to the time of his death. He was succeeded by Monsieur Benet. It is a thorough business organization.

On this same day I visited Mrs. Frank H. Mason, the venerable widow of General Mason. We drove out together and I again visited the Ambulance in her company. She has been active in benevolent work for many years and was greeted everywhere with signs of affection. She took great pride in the ward named for her husband. In this ward most of the soldiers under treatment are officers.

I also met at the Ambulance Major Kipling, the head of the "flying corps". They have there about a dozen military ambulances that go to the front and bring back the wounded. Over seven thousand have been brought in since March. Two trips are made daily.

I also met at the Ambulance Mrs. Benet, a society woman, but in nurse's garb and actively at work.

Miniature French Flag carried by the Author through

I next visited the Church of the Holy Trinity. This is the American church in Paris. It was built in 1842 and is now in charge of Dr. Watson, well known to all Americans who visit Paris. In the urn room are the remains of General Mason and his mother-in-law, Mrs. Judge Birchard. Her husband was in partnership with the late Governor Tod, and it was in Judge Birchard's office that Governor Tod studied law.

On Friday, September 8th, the commission was given a reception by the Association Nationale De Expansion Economique and the Paris Chamber of Commerce, jointly. There was an animated discussion at this luncheon with members of the Paris Chamber of Commerce, all of it in French. Some of the commissioners got badly tangled up, but we got through by the aid of our French-speaking commissioners and matters were pretty well straightened out.

We were given a luncheon on this same day by the Paris Chamber of Commerce at the Armenonville. We met at this luncheon a great many Paris notables, many of them members of the French parliament, and others prominent in business and finance.

In the evening I visited the Rejane Theatre and saw some wonderful moving pictures, taken by means of periscopes; they showed the inside of the trenches, prisoners being taken, big guns firing, one mine explosion, the visit of King George and also of King Albert of Belgium; in fact it was the representation of a real battle and most thrilling.

On Saturday, September 9th, quite to the surprise of many of the commissioners, we were invited to inspect a noted dressmaking establishment, the Callot Saurs, otherwise the Callot Sisters, at No. 11 Avenue Marigon. We could hardly understand what this visit to the dressmakers had to do with our investigating French industrial establishments, but light was thrown on the subject when we learned that these sisters had three thousand employees, principally women. I made the remark that I supposed Worth was the French authority on women's gowns, but was told that Worth was a back number. It was a remarkable experience; we were taken into a large room and for a period of more than two hours were shown marvelous creations in the way of women's gowns. It really looked like a play. There were some lightning changes. We timed some of the models and they changed their entire costumes in less than three minutes. It goes without saying that some of the costumes did not cover enough of the models to require very much time for a change. It was really quite an experience, and some of the commissioners wondered if we could not go back again the next day.

In the evening we were invited to the aviation camp in the suburbs of Paris. This is a school and turns out three hundred aviators monthly. We were given a special exhibition and saw as many as thirty of the aeroplanes go through maneuvers. I was struck by the deafening noise made when the machines arose. One accident occurred while we were there; a machine got out of order and fell to the ground, seriously injuring two of the aviators in charge. The average is one death daily. During the maneuvers a real war call came from the front and four of the largest machines started off. These aeroplanes travel at the rate of over one hundred miles an hour and can reach the front in from twelve to fifteen minutes from Paris. Since these aviators have been guarding Paris, the Germans have given up sending their machines over that city. The plant at the camp manufactures fifty aeroplanes daily.

After this notable aviation exhibition, we called on Robert Bliss, Charge de'affaires at the American Embassy, Mr. Sharp being absent.

On this day we had our first experience in government automobiles. Five military automobiles were placed at our disposal with soldiers for chauffeurs, two in charge of each machine. These automobiles are large and powerful and hold seven persons. In them we saw many interesting sights about Paris and in that section of France, only a few of which may be described.



ON Sunday, September 10th, I had the good fortune to meet Lloyd George. He had been paying a visit to General Joffre, and was registered at the same hotel as the Commission. Through his secretary, and through the persistence of some of the commissioners, arrangements were made to meet this celebrated man. I happened to be the first one of the commissioners introduced. During my youthful days, while a clerk in a company store at Niles, Ohio, I had learned some Welsh, and in this language I greeted Lloyd George. He seemed surprised and was kind enough to remark "That is very good Welsh". This put me in close touch with him and I had quite a conversation. He fired questions quite rapidly. He asked me what business I was in and at the same time what chances Hughes had for being elected. I told him I had been in the steel business for a great many years, and that I was a delegate to the convention which nominated Hughes. I told him I had heard Mr. Hughes' father preach at Mineral Ridge, a suburb of Niles. All the other commissioners were introduced. During the interview, Mr. George made this remark:

"I hope your mission will be successful and help France; I hope you can also help England, and when we have settled our little difficulties, help Germany. The world is big enough for us all."

Mr. George spoke very kindly to me of both Hughes and Roosevelt, and at the close of the interview said with earnestness:

"We are fighting the battle for all civilization. We are fighting for you as well as for ourselves, and you are deeply interested."

I had the impression that the famous Englishman was of large stature, but was mistaken. He is a man about five feet, five inches tall, of slender build, with keen, penetrating eye and somewhat nervous manner; he is certainly one of the great men of the world.

In the afternoon with Dr. Mailloux, a member of the Commission, I paid a visit to General Gosselin, formerly chief of munitions, who had been in America on business for the French Government. He spoke very highly of the steel material furnished by the various American manufacturing plants, and said it would have been impossible for the French to succeed as they had without this help. He urged the shipping of steel on contracts with all possible dispatch. General Gosselin is an important personage, quiet and modest. I was told he had already been of great service to his country.

[Illustration: Lloyd George, Who Says "England is Fighting a Battle for Civilization."]

In the evening we visited "Le Phare de France," or "The Light House of France." This is one of the noblest of the many humane institutions being maintained in France by American means. It is under the management of Miss Winifred Holt, who represents the New York Association for the Blind, and is doing an angel's work among the men blinded in battle, of whom there are more in this war than in any other in history, owing to the many new methods employed and the manner in which battles are fought. Miss Holt is known as "Keeper of the Light House," and is much beloved in France. She is a most engaging young woman and deserves all the kind things said about her by the admiring French. Miss Holt is ably assisted by Miss Cleveland, the charming daughter of the late President Cleveland.

This institution is under the direct patronage of the President of France and a committee composed of the highest officials of that country, although the funds to support it are contributed by wealthy Americans, prominent among whom are the Crockers, of San Francisco. In it the men whose sight has been destroyed are being taught useful occupations and cheered with the hope that they will be able to earn a living. They are also taught to read letters for the blind and thus some of the everlasting darkness to which they had been condemned by the horrors of war is dispelled. It is said that many men who could with difficulty be kept from committing suicide in their despair have become cheerful since entering this institution.

[Illustration: Miss Winifred Holt, "Keeper of the Light House of France."]

On Monday we visited the famous china establishment Sevres. This is one of the oldest works of the kind in France and its product is known everywhere. The plant has now been taken over by the government and used for making gas containers and other accessories used by the army.

Following the visit to Sevres we were entertained in Paris at luncheon by the Circle Republican. On my right sat David Mennet, President of the Paris Chamber of Commerce; on my left sat Monsieur Laffere, Deputy Minister of Labor. Much valuable information was obtained from both of these gentlemen, but it was not of a nature to be recorded.

In the afternoon we visited the famous Renault automobile plant. This plant has been taken over by the government and is employed in making war materials, automobile trucks, automobiles for military use and munitions. The plant employs twelve thousand men and five thousand women. They are engaged twelve hours daily, with one hour off at noon for luncheon. This was our first visit to a munition plant and we were cautioned to be careful in what we might record concerning what we saw. I was struck by the earnestness of the workmen; the expression on their countenances could be universally interpreted, "We are working for France". After this visit to the Renault plant we inspected the plant of Andre Citroon, a Hollander, but a generalle in Paris. He manufactures munitions only, employing seven thousand, five hundred women and twenty-five hundred men. In both of these plants we saw piles of steel made in America and labeled "Youngstown", "Pittsburgh", "Harrisburg" or "Cleveland".

In the evening we were given a banquet by the American Chamber of Commerce at the Hotel Palais d'Orsay. On my right sat Consul General Thackara, whom I had known for a great many years. His wife was a daughter of the late General Sherman, who said, it will be remembered, "War is Hell". In view of what we saw later I think he was quite right. On my left was First Secretary of Legation, American Embassy, Arthur Hugh Frazier.

The Herald gives an account of this banquet as follows:

Between ninety and a hundred members of the American colony in Paris met at the Hotel Palais d'Orsay yesterday evening at a banquet given by the American Chamber of Commerce for the delegation of the American Manufacturers' Export Association, which has just arrived in France.

The large dining-hall of the hotel was tastefully decorated with roses, carnations and dahlias, and hardly a seat was vacant when dinner was served, about eight o'clock.

After an excellent dinner, which began with "Tortue clair" and went on by easy stages from "Langouste muscovite" and an excellent "Baron de Pauillac" to the "Parfait glace Palais d'Orsay", and dessert, Judge Walter V. R. Berry, Vice-president of the Chamber of Commerce in Paris, and acting as chairman in the absence of the president, Mr. Percy Peixotto, addressed the company, as follows:

We have all heard so often about the caravels of Columbus and about the Mayflower that, perhaps a hundred years from now, in a brand-new Palais d'Orsay Hotel, an eloquent member of the Chamber of Commerce will refer to nineteen hundred and sixteen as the year in which the good ship Lafayette brought over for the first time a great American Industrial Commission to explore Darkest France.

Anyone who views with a philosophic mind the tremendous cataclysm that is convulsing the world must reach this conclusion: that its results will be more profound, more far-reaching, more epoch-making than were the results of the Revolution of 1789.

Where, under the new conditions, will the United States find itself?

It is a difficult problem to solve; but if one cannot answer, it will be at least a step forward to put the right questions. Gentlemen of the Commission, it is for you, on your return to America, to formulate these questions.

Heretofore it has been impossible to get together in Europe a delegation of Americans, each one of whom was ready to sink his private interests. This is the first time that an American Commission has come abroad, forgetting the individual, looking only to the welfare of the State.

Gentlemen, I congratulate you on your public spirit and your patriotism. I congratulate you, too, on your opportunity, the magnificent opportunity of bringing home to the American people the urgent necessities that confront them.

After the sustained applause had subsided Mr. W. W. Nichols gave a brief account of the objects for which the American Industrial Commission came to France. He referred to the impetus which had been given to the whole idea by M. Damour, the French deputy and leader of the French Commission which recently visited the United States, and declared that the representatives of French and American manufacturers and industries might help mutually in solving the industrial problem which affected the sister republics. "Our aim," said Mr. Nichols, "is reciprocity in personal conduct and co-operation which will lead to the solution of many minor difficulties. Our possibilities are enormous."

Mr. Nichols concluded with an expression of thanks for the welcome which the Commission had received in France and an acknowledgment of the services which the American Chamber had rendered both to France and to the United States.

On Tuesday we visited the school for maimed soldiers in Paris. At this place the men who are unable to return to the front are taught all kinds of trades—barbering, soap-making, shoe making, etc.

On Wednesday, September 13th the Commission made a trip to Rouen.

Women in knitting mills there earn four francs daily, working eleven hours; in the webbing mills they earn five francs daily, working eleven hours. There are no unions. A great deal of the product had been marketed in Germany but this market was lost. At Rouen we saw a large British steamer loaded with soldiers enroute to the front. They saluted the American flag. The harbor was full of shipping. The boats draw twenty feet of water.

I met J. M. Belin, a manufacturer of tubes used in flying machines. I had a very interesting talk with Monsieur Belin. He told me there were ten thousand German soldiers being killed daily on all the fronts and that seventy per cent of the iron and coal formerly belonging to France was now in the hands of the Germans.

On Thursday, September 14th, we left Paris for Limoges, arriving there at five P.M. We were given a reception by the mayor of the town and the president of the Chamber of Commerce at the Chamber of Commerce Rooms. We were driven through the town, across the River Vienne. We saw an ancient Roman bridge, said to be more than two thousand years old.

[Illustration: Ancient Bridge at Limoges—Built by the Romans Two Thousand Years Ago and Still in Use.]

Also a very old cathedral. A very interesting sight, which I had seen in oil paintings, was that of women washing on the banks of the river. The river was lined for nearly a mile with women all occupied in this useful way.

Limoges is the center of the porcelain industry in France. Its exports to the United States are very large. The consul at Limoges was instructed to do all possible to aid the Commission, and, per contra, the Consul at Rouen was instructed not to accept any invitations or recognize the Commission in an official way.

We visited the Martin china works and saw a veritable "Bull in a china shop", that is to say, there was a pair of bullocks hitched to a wagon going through the warehouse while we were there.

We visited the celebrated Haviland plant at Limoges, and met Geo. Haviland, who is well known in America. With him we had quite a discussion regarding the manufacturers at Limoges increasing their output of low grade wares.

At noon on this day we had a conference with the Chamber of Commerce of Limoges. At this conference I was permitted to say a few words, which were translated for the audience as follows:

Gentlemen, I have been criticised by my fellow Commissioners for not taking part in the discussions. I speak English only, and have hesitated to enter these arguments. It seems to me, though, that instead of trying to enter on the increase of your common product, such as any china manufacturer in the United States can make, you should increase the production of your high grade product. There are high grade porcelains made in Austria and a lot of this comes to us from Germany. Your product is known all over the world—the name "Haviland" is a household word. In my opinion if your manufacturers here at Limoges went into the production of the common qualities of porcelain, it would lower your reputation.

My recommendation, therefore, is that if possible you increase the production of the artistic porcelains.

In the evening a banquet was given us at the Hotel Rue de Lu Paix. On my right was Eugene L. Belisle, American Consul, and on my left was Leon Pinton, Vice-president of the Chamber of Commerce.

The banquet table was a beautiful sight. French and American flags were entwined. Speeches were made by members of the Chamber of Commerce and responses by Mr. Nichols in broken French. I had a most interesting talk with Consul Belisle. He said that one year ago the French would have made a much better settlement of the war than today. They are now better prepared and would demand the return of territory, including Alsace Lorraine, the French people being educated up to this point. He said also that he had come in contact with German prisoners and they were discouraged and would be glad to surrender.

We met at this banquet General Comby, district commander of the twelfth regiment.

Dr. Mailloux and Mr. MacArthur had a very interesting talk with General Comby, Thursday night after the banquet was over. General Comby was in active service at the front after the opening of the war. He described to us particularly what he had seen of warfare at the time of the battle of the Marne. He said it was called the battle of the Marne because of the lack of any other name to give it, but the battle took place over a period of some thirty odd days and covered a considerable region, much of which was far away from the Marne. He informed us that the fresh troops who have not before experienced the severity of battle go into a desperate fight with the greatest valor and heroism; that after troops have seen a long session of fighting, and have been through the hardships of many engagements they lose, and he thinks it is natural they should lose, much of the spirit that accompanies them in their first engagements.

He told us of the very severe losses that were suffered in these first actions of the war; greater than at any other time. Mr. MacArthur understood him to regard this so-called Battle of the Marne as perhaps the bloodiest and most terrible of all battles in history. He informed us that it was not one single battle, but a succession of almost continuous struggles, day and night, over a period of three or four weeks.

General Comby had under his immediate command 18,000 troops, of whom he lost 13,500 in these engagements. He said, however, that in spite of all these losses, he had never found himself nor his troops in the position of defeat; that defeat is largely a matter of sentiment and valor. An army with comparatively slight losses might consider itself defeated if it chose to do so. An army of troops like some of those he had could be cut almost to pieces, and yet, if there was a remnant sufficient and disposed to come together again, they formed a still undefeated and effective body.

The general spoke particularly of a battalion of zouaves that he had, numbering about 1,000, and which was cut down until there were only 280 left. Yet they came together undefeated and effective troops. He said that since the Battle of the Marne the war has taken on a different character. He considered the German defeat as taking place at and by reason of this battle. Had they not been checked then, and turned, there is no telling what the Germans might have done. But they were checked and turned, which constituted their defeat, and all operations that have and are now taking place are simply operations to follow up the victory that was realized at the Marne.

On Saturday, September 16th, we arrived at Aubusson, the centre of the tapestry industry of France, as it has been for the past five centuries.

Aubusson is located in a beautiful country. On our way to that city we noticed women attending sheep, just as we had seen in pictures by Millet and other painters. These women, with only a dog as companion, knit as they tend their flocks.

We arrived in Aubusson at 10:30 A.M. We were first taken to the town hall, where there was a general exhibit of the products of the district on view. I was greatly impressed with a portrait, in tapestry, of General Joffre, the great French commander, idolized by the French people and hero of the Battle of the Marne. It did not occur to me at the moment of examining this tapestry portrait that it might be purchased; but afterwards, while we were at luncheon, I thought possibly it might be bought, and asked Monsieur Damour, who sat next to me, what he thought about it. He expressed the belief that it was not for sale and would not be permitted to go out of France. He said, however, that he would make an investigation, and sent his secretary, who came back in a very short time with the information that the portrait would be sold to an American only. The price was named and without any further negotiations I accepted the offer, making only one condition, that it was not to be duplicated. I had the portrait taken from its frame and brought it with me, having it retrained upon my arrival home. It is certainly a beautiful piece of work, as well as unique; no one but an expert could tell at first glance that it is not a portrait done in oil. It was copied by one of the greatest tapestry artists in France from the oil painting made of General Joffre by a noted French artist.

[Illustration: Tapestry Workers at Aubusson.]

We visited a number of the manufactories owned by different corporations and individuals. I was personally impressed by one piece of tapestry which had been in the making for a period of four years and would require at least one year longer to complete. It depicted the marriage of Napoleon and Josephine. This piece is about thirty feet by twenty feet in size, and contains forty thousand shades of color. It was not for sale, and we were told it was to be held to take part in a celebration of the Allied victory in the Champs Elysees. The French people are so confident of victory that the windows facing the Arc de Triomphe have already been engaged to view the event.

We noticed there in the textile factories old women winding yarn, many of them eighty years of age, but still vigorous and hard at work. A photograph of a group of young girls was taken by one of the Commissioners and is reproduced in these pages.

A little incident occurred at the luncheon before mentioned which is worthy of record.

I noticed a coarse looking American flag suspended in the dining room. I made inquiry of the woman who waited upon us at the table and she said that she had never seen an American flag, but had read about it and had reproduced what she thought was a copy from memory. It was made from a piece of awning containing stripes, with blue stars sewn in. This waitress said she had worked at night on it and got as near as possible to her idea of an American flag. While it was not a work of art, it was a homely representation of the Stars and Stripes and a tribute from an humble citizen of France to America.

In our wanderings about Aubusson we came across an old man who said he was so old that he had forgotten his age. However, in a broken way, he told of having taken part in the Franco-Prussian war, and remembered having seen the great Napoleon. Inquiry made of some of the citizens revealed the fact that his age was supposed to be upwards of one hundred years.

We visited a very old church with the distinction of having two bells which ring simultaneously.

As we left this historic place it was an inspiring sight. Nearly the entirely populace was present and gave us any number of cheers as the military automobiles took their departure.

At seven P. M. we arrived at Bourboule and had dinner at the Palace Hotel. We met here Col. Cosby, military attache of the American Embassy in Paris. This is a watering place and contains a very large convalescent hospital where soldiers, largely officers, are sent to finally recuperate before going back to the front. The waters contain arsenic, are highly medicinal, and known the world over.

We saw at this place the adopted child of Helen Gould. We also met another bright youth about eleven years of age, who spoke some English. He asked one very pertinent question, "Why don't you Americans send your navy over here to help France?"

We were served at dinner by an Amazon waitress. Without measuring her stature, I should say that she was six feet, four inches in height and formed in proportion. Nevertheless she was very alert and active on her feet. She waited on the entire Commission without help, quickly and efficiently.

The chief decoration was a large American flag in the center of the table. This was made of flowers and was unique and beautiful. Bourboule is in a mountainous country and early the next day we were taken to the top of a mountain, a distance of nearly a mile, on what was termed the "Funicular Railroad". We were served luncheon at the Hotel de Funicular, on the top of the mountain, back of the town. The view from this elevation was wonderful and worth the trip to France. When the war is over this locality will no doubt be a leading watering place.

In the afternoon we motored to Clermont-Farrand. We stopped at Mont Dore and at Royal to see the baths, which are noted for their cure for asthmatic affections. We were given a reception at both places, and waited upon by very handsome waitresses wearing most artistic hats. I tried to secure one of these as a souvenir, but without avail, as I was told they were made especially for this institution and were of a special design.

On this journey we saw many interesting sights. Carts with donkeys attached, resembled somewhat the jaunting car in Ireland. Wild flowers were in great abundance and we stopped many times by the wayside to purchase them from the little girls. We stopped at Salvador Rock and listened to an echo which was remarkable; standing on the crest of the rock, tones almost a whisper could be heard reverberating for some time. The rock was surrounded by trees resembling very much the pine in Arizona and the Lake Superior region.

Next we visited a fine old castle, Chateau Miral, and arrived at Clermont-Farrand at seven P. M. Here we were given a banquet at the Grand Hotel by the Chamber of Commerce. We met a number of prominent people, among others Ferdinand Ferryrolles, who manages several hotels at Monte Carlo. We also met Emmanuel Cheneau, Henri Roche, editor of the Paris Temps, Etienne Morel and Leon Bernardaud.

We left Clermont-Farrand early on Monday, in military automobiles for St. Etienne.



THE question of visiting the birthplace of the immortal Lafayette came up at this time, and some of the members insisted on a trip to this historic spot. The majority carried and we made a detour of nearly one hundred miles to reach St. George's D'Aurac, near which stands the stately Chateau Chavagnac, object of our reverent curiosity. At the time of our visit it was owned by Mr. de Sahame, son of the niece of Lafayette, bearing the title of Marquis of Lafayette, and residing at Neuilly, near Paris. We were met by the mayor of the small village, quite near, and the caretaker of the Chateau, which was in a very good state of preservation, but not at that time occupied. The prefect of the district appeared soon and the Commission presented to the ownership of the Chateau two very beautiful flags, one an American and the other French, together with a large bouquet of palms and roses. These flags and the floral offering were placed in the bed where Lafayette was born. Mr. Nichols, our Chairman, then made the following address:

In a large sense, this auspicious occasion is the most appropriate event of our trip, because it brings us closer to that which has been a constant bond of sympathy between the French and American people. We are more than happy to stand here in the home of our Washington's intimate friend, where he spent his days of peace, and whither he retired when cares of state weighed too heavily upon him. It is not hard to believe that here also was the birthplace of his greatest thoughts, the beginnings of his noblest aspirations.

Lafayette, the apostle of liberty, came to struggling America at the opportune time, and in ways that every school child at home knows, cast his lot with ours in that perfect sympathy which constituted Washington's greatest support. History's record, complete as it is, cannot account for the countless things Lafayette did for us, which many times perhaps changed the course of events in our favor and brought us that freedom of thought, that liberty of action, which he ever craved.

When we stop to reflect that it all began here, our souls may well be moved beyond the mere expression of words. After a century and a quarter we treasure Lafayette's memory and it grows with an increasing realization of the merit of the assistance he rendered us. Our two nations today are the embodiment of the principles he stood for, perhaps was a great factor in inculcating in the minds of our ancestors, to be transmitted by inheritance to us. We rejoice that he lived; that a land like France gave him birth; that the friendship he began continues to make the world better.

May we realize the dream ever present with him, to judge from his actions, which speak more insistent than words, of a mutuality of our national interests; that hand in hand the two great republics may together work out their great destinies, together set an example for the world worthy of its emulation, an example of a fraternity of purpose and attempt which by its very strength will compel the better things of life.

[Illustration: Lafayette's Deathbed, with Commission's Flag and Flowers.]

Gentlemen: In reverence to the memory of our great compatriot, let us devote a moment to silent contemplation of the great thoughts that inspired the great deeds of our great brother, Lafayette.

There was a response by the prefect and the mayor of the nearby village.

This visit was an historical event. I had made up my mind, and so talked with another member of the Commission, that it would be a fine thing to purchase this property, endow it with a fund which would keep it always open as a museum and present it to the French Government. Since our return to America the property has been acquired by a group of prominent American men and women, headed by Mrs. William Astor Chanler, for the same purpose that some of the members of our Commission had in mind, a most worthy project. This birthplace is known as The Chateau de Chavagnac-Lafayette. It is the hope of the purchasers to make it "A French Mount Vernon".

The Marquis Gilbert de Lafayette was born at the Chateau de Chavagnac, in the French province of Auvergne, on September 6th, 1757. It is some four hundred miles from Paris, in southern France. The crowning architectural feature of this little settlement of some five hundred souls, it stands, sentinel-like, among the sixty red-tiled roofs of the village. The little church at which Lafayette worshipped is only a step from the Chateau gates.

The original Chateau de Chavagnac dates from the fourteenth century. It was destroyed by fire in 1701, but was very soon afterward rebuilt from the original plans.

It is the purpose of the French Heroes' Fund to make this Chateau in France a complement to Mount Vernon. In it are to be kept records of Colonial days, as well as those of the present war. There is to be a room dedicated to the British; one to the Legion; another to the American Ambulance and still another to aviation. It is also to be made a home for orphans and for soldiers who have been disabled.

After a collation, we visited the reception room, which contains a number of old-time engravings, facsimiles of the Declaration of Independence, a bronze bust of Lafayette, a marble bust of Lafayette and a bronze bust of Franklin. Overhanging the bed in which Lafayette was born is a fine portrait of Benjamin Franklin. Although Lafayette died in Paris, the bed in which he died was brought to the Chateau, and we were shown this also.

Among other things in the reception room was a large placard with the heading "North American United States Constitution Explained". There was also a billiard table which looked as if it had seen much service.

I have alluded to this visit to the birthplace of Lafayette in a little address which I made at Besancon, and which will appear later.

Some photographs of the Commission were taken before leaving. Quite a large sum was raised among the Commissioners and given to the mayor to be distributed among the poor of the village.

Our next objective was LePuy, where we arrived at 4:30 P.M. and had breakfast, so-called, although the detour to the birthplace of Lafayette made us about ten hours late. We were met by the prefect, the mayor and the president of the Chamber of Commerce. We visited a church built on the top of a rock, the ascent to which was by three hundred perpendicular steps, two feet wide. It was said that these steps were built in this way as an opportunity for penance, it being a very hard operation to climb to the top. Some of our people made the ascent, myself among the number. When we reached the top we were rewarded by a magnificent view of the surrounding country. At the highest point is a statue of the Virgin Mary, made of Russian cannon, recast after capture by Napoleon.

While at LePuy we were shown the only spot where the immortal Caesar was defeated; otherwise his reign was triumphant.

Leaving LePuy we arrived at St. Etienne at midnight, after a most perilous ride. A banquet had been planned at St. Etienne, but had been postponed. On the following day we visited the establishment of the Giron Brothers, ribbon manufacturers. This establishment dates back to the very early part of the Nineteenth century, and at present has two thousand employees, nearly all women. Its trade is largely with the United States. On account of the labor situation the factory is working only half time. The men are at war, the women in the munition plants and factories. Wage earners make four, and not to exceed five, francs per day and consider themselves well paid.

[Illustration: Monastery of St. Michael at Le Puy.]

We also visited the silk manufacturing plant of P. Staron, Jr. We saw here the most beautiful silks and brocades. Among other fine things were ribbons in the Fleur de Lis design, the national flower of France. On account of the war the employees at work were few.

Here we met Mr. Wm. H. Hunt, American consul and the last appointee of President McKinley before his untimely death.

At St. Etienne I went into a barbershop to get a shave, sat down in the chair, and a youth not over twelve years of age started to lather me. I supposed, of course, that he was getting me ready for the barber, who would soon appear; instead of that he proceeded with the work himself. He spoke a little English, telling me his father was in the army and he was running the business. He gave me one of the best shaves I received in France.

My next experience with the youth of France was with a boy chauffeur. Our military automobiles had disappeared for the time being and I engaged a taxicab.

[Illustration: Silk Tapestry Menu Used at Dinner to the Commission at St. Etienne.]

The boy who ran this was not over eleven or twelve years of age, but he did the work well.

On the evening of September 19th, we were given a banquet by the Chamber of Commerce at St. Etienne. It was a very successful affair. I met here Theodore Laurent, a prominent steel manufacturer whom I had met at Brussels in 1911, when the American Iron and Steel Institute made its famous visit to England and the continent. At this banquet we met also the prefect and other notables.



WEDNESDAY, September 20th, we left St. Etienne for St. Charmond to visit the plant at which Mr. Laurent is director general. His company owns several plants, this being the most important and one of the oldest manufactories of cannons and munitions in France. We met here Colonel Rimialho, who is the inventor of the seventy-five-millimeter gun and has general charge of the artillery and munitions manufactured in France. The plant at the present time makes only cannon and munitions. There are no blast furnaces at the works. They use the Siemens-Martin process and melt about seventy-five to eighty per cent. scrap. They also use a quantity of vanadium steel imported from America and furnished by the American Vanadium Company. We were told that France produces five hundred thousand shells or projectiles daily. This plant turns out twenty-eight thousand of this number, besides one hundred and twenty thousand fuses, or detonators. Before the war the works produced one hundred and twenty thousand annually; they now make this number daily. They have sixteen thousand employees, five thousand of whom are women. We saw here a number of Amazonian Junos doing men's work while wearing leather aprons, and were informed that they were fully as efficient as men and are paid the same wages.

We saw at these works a number of the now famous "caterpillars", an armored car moving on a broad track which it lays down as it goes. This machine was invented by an American, and I have seen it at work on the Pacific coast.

After an examination of the works, we were taken to the suburbs of the town and a special test of the big guns was made for our benefit, the firing going to the hill. We were instructed to put cotton in our ears and keep our mouths open, and faithfully observed this injunction. The seventy-five millimeter fired twelve shots in thirty-six seconds, by my watch. The target was brought to us afterwards and we were shown that the projectiles went straight through without a side dent. We were also treated to the firing of some of the very large guns, and by the time this was over I was ready to visit an ear doctor, if there had been one convenient.

When this interesting exhibition was ended we were entertained for the first time in a real French home. Mr. Laurent took us to his home and gave us a luncheon. We met Mrs. Laurent and two daughters, but the four sons had joined the colors. Two of them had already lost their lives in battle.

We met at this luncheon Sir Thomas Barclay, of London, who has taken an active part in the humanitarian work of England, with headquarters in Paris.

[Illustration: Col. Rimailho with 155-mm. Gun (upper) and Famous 75-mm. Gun (lower) Perfected by Him.]

The party reached Lyons at 6:20 P.M. by military automobiles and at once had a conference with Mayor Heriot. It appeared that there was some discussion between this official and the president of the Chamber of Commerce as to who should head the entertaining. We were greatly impressed with M. Heriot, but he took a night train for Paris and we were left in the hands of the Chamber of Commerce. We were given a reception by this body, and spent the night at Lyons.

On the afternoon of the following day we visited the textile museum. We also visited the government munitions plant, which was formerly the Lyons fair, but had been taken over by the government, stripped of everything and made the most efficient munitions plant in all France. We met Thadee Natanson, Director General. He is a wonderful character. Our impression of him was very good and he later addressed us in strong but broken English and said he hoped he would learn something from us, and, if we had, in visiting the plant, any suggestions to make, he wanted to hear them. The plant employs twelve thousand, one-half women and the remainder men. The product is shells, cartridges, fuses, and detonators. We were told that this is the only place in France where a projectile is entirely completed, ready to fire. We met Andre Foulcher, engineer of the plant. The production of this plant is twenty-eight thousand shells and twenty-five thousand fuses daily. We were told that here the women were more efficient than the men. At these works we were taken into the most dangerous part of the plant, where frequent explosions have occurred.

We met here George Martin, editor of the Paris "Progress", and also Capt. J. Barret, who had recently lost in the army his only son.

Our tour of Lyons included the Lyons electric light and gas plant. On this side trip we met an entire regiment of Algerian soldiers, black as the traditional ace of spades, but fine specimens of manhood. Their uniforms were almost identical with the uniform worn by our soldiers in the Civil War. They wore light blue overcoats, such as Governor Tod furnished the first company which marched from Youngstown.

Over the door of the gas plant were the words "Defense D'Entrer", with skull and cross bones underneath and with the further words, "Danger de Mort".

At this place we received our first home letters, which were very welcome.

In the evening we were given a banquet by the Chamber of Commerce. The invitation received from the Lyons Chamber, translated, is as follows:

Lyon, Chamber of Commerce.

The Lyons Chamber of Commerce beg you to be so kind as to accept a private invitation at dinner which it will give to the members of the Commission of the United States on Thursday, September 21st, 7 o'clock P. M. at Berrier and Millet, 31 Bellecour Square. Business dress.


We were welcomed in English by the vice-president of the Chamber of Commerce, and discussed the following menu:

Supreme of Lobster A l'amiral
Tenderloin a la bearnaise
Artichoke Hearts
Chantilly style
Roast Truffled Bresse Chicken
Scotch Salad
Havana Ice
Fleurie (Beaujolais) in Decanter
Pouilly (Maconnais) in Decanter
White Hermitage 1904
Chateau Vaudieu 1904
Saint-Peray frappe

On my right was General d'Armade, one of the noted generals of the French army, who had seen service all through the present war. On my left was M. Farrand. My talk with General d'Armade was most interesting. He said the best soldiers of both the French and the German armies were gone; that they had been destroyed in the early part of the war and that the soldiers now fighting were civilians who had been trained for two years. He declared that a French soldier was always a French soldier. He had no doubt of the ultimate victory of the Allies. In addition to General d'Armade's experience in the present war, he had been in Morocco and the Sudan with important commands.

On Friday, the day following, we were entertained by the directors of the Lyons Fair. On my left was Charles Cabaud, Russian Consul General. On my right sat Dr. Jules Courmont, who in time of peace is Professor of the faculty of medicine and physician to the hospitals of Lyons, but who now, in time of war, is in the War Department, has the rank of general, and is charged with the hygiene of the army.

We found him a very competent and interesting gentleman. He accompanied us in the private car which the railroad furnished us, and went south with us some distance to where there is a large government garrison, and where he had an inspection to make.

During the trip on the train Dr. Courmont told us many interesting things about the hygiene of the army. He said that the warfare of today is very different from the warfare of former times in respect to the hygiene; that contrary to what was commonly supposed, the hygiene of the trenches is excellent; that the soldiers are in better condition, most of them, than they are in time of peace. They are more regularly and better fed, and are strong, well nourished and hearty. The experience has been the regeneration of very many of them physically. This is due, he says, to the fact that they have their food served to them regularly and abundantly; whereas in former wars it was a matter of the greatest difficulty for troops to be provisioned.

We asked him whether or not the water in the trenches was harmful to the soldiers and he replied that they had very little rheumatism, and the men did not seem to suffer from it. He said there was almost, or in fact, no smallpox, and there was comparatively no typhoid. All of the soldiers are innoculated against typhoid, receiving on the first innoculation three or four injections, and subsequently being innoculated about once in every six months, receiving then two injections. This is for soldiers, whereas civilians are usually innoculated about once every three years, if it is desired that they should be kept immune from typhoid. He says they use with best results the system of Dr. Vidal, of Paris, employing a serum in which the bacteria have been destroyed by heat rather than by boiling. They find the effect of this serum much better than that of others. He says that tuberculosis does, of course, exist, because tuberculosis exists among most civilized peoples. There is even more tuberculosis now among the troops than at the beginning of the war; but this is not due to an increase of tuberculosis, but is due to the fact that the later levies of troops have included many soldiers who at the beginning would not have been accepted, because they either had the disease or had a tendency toward it.

He then spoke about the effect of various weapons in use. He was asked whether the modern rifle wound was serious. He said it was either so serious as to kill the soldier by passing-through the brain, the heart, or some other vital part, or else it was a matter of more or less indifference. If a rifle ball went through the fleshy part of the body, you could pretty safely say it was not a grave wound, because the bullets passing through the air are so cleansed and heated that when they go through the fleshy part of the body they leave no germs and do little harm unless they fracture a bone. We asked if they did not carry into the wound infected pieces of the soldiers' clothing, and he said no, that they did not find that to be the case; that the bullet went through so quickly that it separated the clothing, and went through the flesh clean. He even stated that a bullet could pass through the lungs; that the wounded soldier would spit up blood, but that when attended to at once, and the wound dressed, it would be a matter of only eight or ten days when he would be again in fairly good condition. He said, however, that wounds from fragments of shrapnel were of quite a different character; that they were ragged, unclean and usually gave much concern. He said, also, as a matter of fact, that the gun or rifle was performing a less and less important function in warfare. That many were even in favor of abandoning the rifle entirely as a weapon. That the war, as carried on today, is carried on in personal assaults mainly through the effectiveness of the grenades, handknives, revolvers and similar weapons; that the trenches and trench warfare are not suited to close hand-to-hand encounters, as there is not usually room enough to manipulate a gun and bayonet. (This agrees with what was told us by our Negro friend, Bob Scanlon, whom we met at Clermond, and who said all he wanted and carried in an assault or a fight were grenades, a knife and a good club, preferably of iron.)

The doctor said that for the warfare of today reliance is mainly upon the mitrailleuse, which fires 300 shots a minute. He says that nothing living within the range of these guns, and exposed to them, can possibly stand. This is the small arm which had such great effect for the French in the first days of the war. The Germans had very few guns of this kind in the beginning, but they have since provided themselves with them. He said that outside of these guns the most effective are the famous 75 mm. and the 155 mm. rifles. He asked us to recall the fact that both of these guns were fired for our benefit at St. Charmond, under the direction of Col. Rimailho, whom we had the pleasure of meeting there, and who was one of the important men co-operating in building the "75", and who was, himself, the inventor and author of the "155". These are the guns of lighter caliber which do such effective work in the field. Of course, in addition, the French are also using guns of very large caliber, for instance the 350 mm. These, of course, are for the reduction of forts, and the enemy's line prior to assault.

[Illustration: Women Employed in Munitions Factories.]

Dr. Courmont wanted to know whether we had seen the new armored caterpillar cars which they were preparing, and we told him we had seen them at St. Charmond. He said they were to be equipped with one "75" gun and with two or three mitrailleuses (the rapid fire gun), and that an equipment like this, armored against the shrapnel of the enemy, would doubtless be most effective for the French, as a similar caterpillar had been for the English.



WE left Lyons for Arles, in the military automobiles, passing through and stopping for a brief time at Tarascon, made famous by Daude in his novel, "Tartarin of Tarascon". Here we were given the usual reception and pretty much the entire population of the town turned out to greet us. The following leaflet by the Arles Chamber of Commerce outlines the program:

Reception of the Economical Commission of the United States

 Friday, September 22nd
5 o'clock 25'
Reception of the Commission at the station by the Chamber of Commerce and the officials of the City of Arles.
7 o'clock 45'
Dinner given by the Chamber of Commerce (Hotel Du Nord).
 Saturday, September 23rd
8 o'clock 30'
Leave the Forum Square for the visit of the monuments and museums of Arles.
11 o'clock 25'Luncheon given by the Chamber of Commerce (Forum hotel).
1 o'clock 10"
Leave Forum Square for the station.

At the evening banquet at the Hotel Du Nord, on my right was J. E. Agate, an English army officer. He had been in the quartermaster's department, engaged in purchasing supplies for the English army. On my left was M. Bonnet Guillaume, vice-president of the Chamber of Commerce, and who lives at Tarascon. We met at this banquet Henri Brenier, advance agent of the Marseilles Chamber of Commerce. He distributed a handsome booklet prepared by the Marseilles Chamber.

[Illustration: Arlesiennes—Types of Southern France.]

Mr. Geo. B. Ford, of the Commission, delivered the following address before the Arles Chamber of Commerce:

Yesterday afternoon I went to the Arena alone, and climbed up as high as I could and studied it while the sunset shadows crept high and higher and the great arches gradually faded into gloom.

The wonderful history of Arles passed before me. I saw it as the great imperial Roman city dominating the valley. I saw it during the Christian times in the building of the portal of St. Trophime, and saw it during the Gothic times leading in the history of the Church, and then again in the Renaissance presenting the world with the most beautiful example of the work of Mansard, the City Hall.

It seemed that most that was best in the history of architecture in France was epitomized in the monuments of Arles. To the connoisseur in America, Arles is well-known. I remember many years ago their pointing out to me the portal of Trinity Church in Boston, saying it was inspired from a church called St. Trophime in a town called Arles in France. The architect of that church, Richardson, our greatest American architect, was a great lover of Arles. He came here often for inspiration. Through him, Arles had a great influence on American architecture of the time.

Recently there was in New York City a competition among leading architects for a great court house. The design which won was frankly admitted by its author—Guy Lowell—to be inspired by the Arena of Arles, of which he is a most enthusiastic admirer.

A number of outdoor theatres have sprung up of late throughout America. The Roman theatre at Arles is their model.

There is an impression prevalent in France that the average American thinks only of business; that the higher things of life have no interest for him. It is far from true. The members of this Industrial Commission are truly representative of the average interest and point of view of the American business man, manufacturer and technical man, and yet each one of them has gone out of his way to express his delight in his visit to Arles. All consider it one of the most valuable parts of the trip. Yes, a marked change is coming over the American business man. He is recognizing that there is far more in life than being tied to his job without a let-up. He is relaxing now and then, and in his relaxation he is discovering the France that his wife and daughter know. He should come to Arles. He has begun to come a little. We hope he will come in far greater numbers in the future. It remains for you to spread broadcast the virtues of Arles. We sincerely hope that you will miss no opportunities to do this for we believe it will tend to weave another important bond of understanding and sympathy between the two countries.

We visited Angna Castle in Arles, to which the Popes were once exiled, even yet known as the "Home of Popes", or "Popes' Castle".

Arles contains convalescent hospitals, and Red Cross girls, with their cans, having a slot, were collecting coins everywhere. Arles is an ancient Roman town. We visited the famous Hotel de Ville, or Town Hall, which dates back to the Seventeenth century. The architect was Mansard, for whom the Mansard roof, known in America, is named. The Town Hall is covered by a curious roof, with supports which hold up the entire building. In the square is an Egyptian obelisk four thousand years old.

We visited another ancient museum and were shown among other things a very ancient lead pipe six inches in diameter and in a good state of preservation. In a sarcophagus of the second century were the remains of a Roman musician, with an inscription thereon. In addition there was a statue of Emperor Augustus and a statue of Venus of Arles, with some original and some restored jars and vases more than two thousand years old.

We visited an old church founded by St. Trophime, noted in the Bible in the epistles of St. Paul. Barbarossa, Emperor of Germany, was crowned in this church. I was struck by a tablet of "Moses crossing the Red Sea" on one of the walls. This tablet, a most beautiful and interesting piece of art, reminded me of an experience of my younger days which served to fix in my mind the celebrated passage of the Israelites in a manner the effectiveness of which would be envied by the average Sunday School teacher, even if it was not entirely due to reverence. I had often told this story to my friends and again told it that evening to some of the members of the Commission, who seemed to enjoy it well enough to justify its repetition here.

About the close of the Civil War in 1865, I paid a visit to a younger brother who was managing a small charcoal blast furnace in Tennessee. I had never been in this part of the South before and had received minute instructions as to how to find the place.

Embarking at Nashville on a Cumberland river boat, after a day's ride, I left the boat in accordance with my brother's instructions at a small landing and, crossing the river on a ferry, remained over night at a cabin occupied by a pious old Negro. A horse was sent me at this humble abode the following morning.

Some little time after finishing a hearty meal composed almost wholly of corn pone, the old gentleman brought out a time worn Bible and read two or three chapters. He then announced that we would all unite in prayer. We all kneeled down. He invoked the Divine blessing upon the rulers of the earth, the President of the United States and almost everything else movable and immovable, on land, under the sea and over the sea. After he had prayed fully a half hour, tired and sleepy, I became impatient and nudged the half-grown boy next to me with a query as to how long the prayer would last. Meantime the boy had fallen asleep. However my nudge woke him up and, repeating my inquiry, I was answered with the question:—"Has pap got to where Moses crossed de Red Sea"? "No, he has not got to that yet," was my answer. "Well, when Pap gets to where Moses done crossed de Red Sea, he am jes half through."

We saw also in this church the tomb of Montcalm, grandfather of Montcalm, the French general who fell at the taking of Quebec in the French and English war during the Seventeenth century.

We visited Roman walls and ramparts built by Julius Caesar, and saw an ancient cemetery directly opposite a munitions factory, which we thought was a very appropriate location. This cemetery had been pillaged and the ancient things carried away as relics.

We also visited, while at Arles, a convalescent camp, and saw a number of Moroccan soldiers.

A point of great interest is the ancient Roman Theatre, built by Augustus Caesar and containing a statue of that Emperor. Another is the Arena, built in the first century, restored and reconstructed, and now used as an outdoor theatre. Sarah Bernhardt played there two years ago in a Shakesperian representation. It was used in the olden days for the entertainment of royalty, for gladiatorial contests, and battles of wild beasts. It is frequently used now for bull rights, as this part of France is near the Spanish border.

In front of the Hotel Du Nord is the statue of Mistral, the great poet of Provence.

We visited the Palace of Constantine, Roman Emperor in the fourth century. In this place remains a pool with means for heating water which would be considered in good form at the present day.

Arles is a famous centre of architecture and has been visited by all the great architects of the world. Here many received high inspiration, as stated in the address given by Mr. Ford.

En route to Arles we had noticed an old Roman theatre in the village of Orange. We noticed also, which seemed to be common in South France, that the horses wore a leather horn on the tops of their collars. This is said to be a usage handed down from the Middle Ages. In this region we passed whole train loads of grapes, which looked from a short distance like carloads of anthracite coal.

Our next destination was Marseilles, and here Henri Brenier met us. We stopped at Martique, which was the home of Ziem, the great French painter, now deceased. We visited the Ziem museum. The lake of Martique is where the new port of Marseilles is to be located. This town dates back six hundred years B. C. We met here the president, Adrien Artaud, and the vice-president, Hubert Giraud, of the Chamber of Commerce of Marseilles.

[Illustration: Old Roman Arena at Arles—Still Used For Bull Fights and Other Amusements.]



ARRIVING at De Rove, the south end of the tunnel, on Saturday, September 23rd, I had my first view of the Mediterranean. It was a most beautiful sight, and the water as blue as pictured in paintings. We were rowed in a small boat across an arm of the Mediterranean to the town of Marseilles. We first visited the new part of Marseilles; then the old. Upon our arrival there was a tremendous gathering to greet us; not less than ten thousand children were shouting "Viva la Amerique". The whole city was decorated with American and French flags intertwined. The crowd lined upon the wharf so thickly we could scarcely pass through it. This reception was the greatest we had received anywhere in France. We visited the Hotel de Ville and were greeted by the mayor, with a response by Mr. Nichols, interpreted by Dr. Mailloux. We were then taken to the Hotel Regina and in the evening given a banquet by the Chamber of Commerce. This chamber was organized in 1599 and is the oldest chamber of commerce in the world.

Our invitation to this banquet read as follows:

The President of the Marseilles Chamber of Commerce begs you to honor him by your presence at the luncheon which will be given to the members of your Commission on

Monday, September 25th 12:30 P. M. at the
Restaurant de la Re'serve.
(31 F Promenade de la Corniche)

At this banquet, on my right sat Maurice Damour, French deputy in charge of the Commission, and on my left Hubert Giraud, vice-president of the Chamber of Commerce. He made a fine address and I asked him for a copy, which he gave me. It is reproduced herewith:

Mr. President— Gentlemen:

I am desired by my President to give you in your own language the welcome of the Chamber of Commerce of Marseilles. You will certainly lose more than gain in hearing me instead of President Artaud, and I must apologize, as my knowledge of English is far from being adequate to my task. Anyhow, it is possible my words may be by a few of our guests more easily translated than if delivered in French.

Gentlemen, the oldest Chamber of Commerce in France, and maybe in the world, is exceedingly proud of entertaining tonight the highly qualified representatives of the American Commerce and Industry. We are most thankful to your party to have agreed to spend some of your valuable time in our city. We are sorry to say that we have not this good fortune as often as we would like, and that your fellow-citizens generally pay very little care to our old harbour and town. They are rather exclusively attracted by our great capital, Paris, and when coming to enjoy the splendid winters of the French Riviera, they reach it direct by rail or by sea, and seem to be quite ignorant of Marseilles, where they could find at least what is our city's glory: LIGHT, LIFE and LABOUR.

I think that Marseilles deserves more attention, and that the old ties between America and Marseilles should be better known. I would recall that our history, especially the history of our Chamber of Commerce, records the old sympathy of Marseilles for America. It is as old as your nation herself. At the end of the eighteenth century, when the stars of young America just appeared on the Atlantic horizon, French warships fought for your fathers' independence. Some ships of Admiral d'Estaing's French squadron bore names such as "LE MARSEILLAIS", "LA PROVENCE". In the year 1782 the French fleet was increased by a new warship of 118 guns, built and armed at the expense of the Chamber of Commerce of Marseilles. Her cost was 1,200,000 francs, a very small sum of money in our days, but rather a large one in those remote times. She was offered to King Louis XVI for the very purpose of helping in the American war, and she was named by the King "Le Commerce de Marseille."

Gentlemen, it is for the successors of the "echevins" of the year 1782 a great joy to meet in Marseilles the sons of the glorious soldiers of the Independence War, sustained so many years ago with the assistance of the warship bearing their own name.

Gentlemen, Marseilles may be somewhat ignored, but France was not forgotten by America. I need not mention the numerous proofs our country has received of your country's sympathy. But I only fulfill a duty in emphasizing the very great help we have found in America in the course of this terrible war, the greatest human cataclysm which ever stormed the human world. All of us are aware that France found in America another kind of help than material, steel and grain. France found amongst you any sort of goods, but also—and over all—kindness and pity. American ambulances, splendidly organized, afforded invaluable relief to our wounded on the front. May I mention not that American airmen rendered to our army the most useful services, and that American lives were lost for France. America helps us by sea, on land and in the air. Your country knows that France is not fighting for power or profit, but that she is pouring the best of her children's blood for Freedom and Humanity.

Gentlemen, we used to say in France that good accounts, that is good settlements of business, make good friends. I believe that the words may be reversed and that good friendship may lead to good business. I trust that after this war, trade between America and Marseilles will be largely extended. We have shown you that, notwithstanding the present worries and difficulties, we are pushing on our harbor improvements and preparing large accommodation for shipping and industry. We strongly believe that, in the near future, Marseilles must become the most important harbor and center of commerce for the whole Mediterranean Sea. We think that the American trade will find in our city the best center of distribution for your large exports of commodities such as petroleum, harvesting machinery, tobacco, and that they should be forwarded through Marseilles to all the Mediterranean shores. I have no doubt your visit in our city will allow you to observe that you can find here produce of our land or of our industry, most convenient for American requirements, and that in the mutual interest of your and our cities the trade between Marseilles and American ports will be proportionate to the friendship of the Nations.

Mr. President, Gentlemen, I propose your good health and the good health of your friends, and the prosperity of our sister Republic, The United States of America.

[Illustration: Shore of Mediterranean near Marseilles. In the Distance Chateau D'If, Made Famous by Dumas.]

There was greeting by M. Artaud, president of the Chamber of Commerce, and a response by Mr. Nichols. We were given an ovation by the most representative people of Marseilles. We met at this dinner, A. Gaulin, American Consul General, and he was most cordial.

The next day was Sunday. In the afternoon we visited the Marseilles Art Museum. We saw a bust, recently found, which dates back to the Second century; it resembles very closely the work of Rodin. In this museum we saw an old bell, labeled 1840, and an old straw hat, labeled 1820. We drove all over the city, visited the old docks and noted the cosmopolitan conglomeration of people in streets.

We were taken to the Chateau D'If, which is a quarter of a mile out at sea, made world-famous by Dumas in the noted novel "The Count of Monte Cristo". We all resolved, right then and there, that when we got home we would re-read "The Count of Monte Cristo". In our drive we saw Longchamp palace, which resembles very much the court of honor in the National McKinley Birthplace Memorial at Niles, Ohio. The entrance to the port of Marseilles resembles the Golden Gate at San Francisco. We gathered considerable information in our talks with the people we met at Marseilles, being told among other things, that all the officials of the French government are to hold over until the war is over, that is to say, elections are suspended for the time being. The efficiency and preparedness of the Germans was enlarged upon, it being stated, as is very well known, that Germany was the only country prepared at the time the war broke out.

We visited at Marseilles the birthplace of Rouget de l'Isle, the author of the Marseilles hymn. This hymn was first sung by a lady at an evening party in Straussburgh, Germany, and it was then called the "Hymn of the Soldier from Marseilles", but afterwards became known as "The Marsellaise Hymn". It is the national anthem of France; the words are inspiring and no one, whether American or French, can listen to the music of this hymn without being stirred to the depths.

We heard much of the vast stores of zinc and iron ores in Tunisia and Algeria, and were given much information about French colonies. France, including its colonies, has nearly one hundred million people. The Trans-Africa Railroad takes in a population of more than two hundred million people along the Mediterranean, including France, Spain and Italy. One of the largest dams in the world, "La Durance Dame," 429 feet across, is in France, not far from Marseilles.

Before the war Germany marketed a large amount of its coal in France, three hundred thousand tons annually.

Bauxite or aluminum ore is mined in France, and 60 per cent. of the output of the world is French product. Algeria contains millions of acres of virgin forests, ready to be explored. The cork oak is one of the important trees. Large exports of iron ore are made to England. At the end of the war the French expect to market ore and coal from the fields of Lorraine.

In our travels through Marseilles, we did not observe anywhere play grounds or amusements of any kind for the workmen.

Marseilles has a number of convalescent hospitals. We saw in the streets on Sunday, soldiers wandering about, English, French, Russian, Tunisian, Algerian, Hindu-Chinese, Moroccan, Australian, Canadian, Corsican; natives of Madagascar and Negroes from South Africa—soldiers from eleven different nations.

There is a plan projected to connect Marseilles with a system of French canals, so as to afford direct water communication between the Mediterranean, the North Sea and thus to the English Channel. Marseilles antedates the Christian era by five hundred years. In 1782 a man-of-war mounting one hundred and eighteen guns, named "La Commerce de Marseilles" was built at the expense of the Marseilles Chamber of Commerce and presented to Louis XVI for the fleet sent by the French Government to fight for American independence. Marseilles, later on, became prominent in the French Revolution and gave its name to the French national hymn.

The largest tunnel in the world is now well under course of construction in France, its object being to give the city of Marseilles connection with Paris and the interior in general by rail and water. This tunnel will provide an ample waterway for barges. The entire project involves the building of a new harbor and the cutting of a ship canal, actually tunneled through solid rock for five long miles, joining the old harbor and the Mediterranean to the River Rhone. The Rhone's upper stretches are placid and already are used extensively for barge navigation, but near Marseilles the stream is far too turbulent for commerce. A range of hills had prevented the construction of a canal in days gone by. Now, with France energized by the war, and with the necessity for the canal emphasized thereby, the tunnel is being pushed and the canal will soon be opened. It will connect Marseilles with the network of canals which extends throughout the country. There are longer tunnels in the world, but none so large, for this is seventy-two feet wide and nearly forty-seven feet high. The work was begun in 1911-12 and has been continued through the war. The project is being put through by the Marseilles Chamber of Commerce, which found $8,000,000 of the $18,280,000 required to do the work. The balance will be paid by vessel tolls. The canal runs from Arles to the Mediterranean, a distance of fifty-one miles, making a navigable waterway to the usable portion of the Rhone and the Saone, opening 337 miles of water capable of bearing 600-ton lighters. By this canal and links already available, barges can be sent from the Mediterranean to the English Channel.

On Monday, September the 25th, I called upon the Consul General A. Gaulin. I found him a very agreeable gentleman and quite devoted to his work, a great deal of which consisted in helping needy Americans stranded in France.

The Commission was invited to luncheon at the Hotel Reserve, overlooking the Mediterranean and the Chateau D'If. On my right sat the president of the Marseilles Chamber of Commerce, Adrien Artaud, and on my left sat Lucien Estrine, former president of the Marseilles Chamber of Commerce. At this elevated hotel, tradition has it, the Count of Monte Cristo and his bride had their wedding breakfast.

In the afternoon an open meeting was held by the Chamber of Commerce at the Regina Hotel. This meeting was attended by citizens of Marseilles interested in the import and export business. The question of credits was pretty thoroughly discussed. It was stated by a number of Frenchmen present that the coveting of the iron ore and coal deposits of France by the Germans was the real cause of the war.



WE left Marseilles on Tuesday, September 26th, at 6 A. M. for Grenoble. The sunrise was very beautiful; along the way you can see trees, the tops of which have been chopped off. We were told that the annual crop of fire-wood in France is just the same as the annual crop of wheat or any other product. Fast growing trees are planted and the branches and twigs are utilized for fuel.

We were met at the Grenoble station by eight entirely new Dodge automobiles.

At Grenoble, we visited the glove factory of Perrin & Co. This firm is well known in the United States and we were informed that our country is its best customer. In normal times the concern employes twenty thousand men and women, equally divided. The product is twenty million pairs of gloves annually. Much of the work is taken home for execution. The shop is well lighted and the sanitary conditions seem to be all of the very best. We visited the Raymond button factory and the candy factory of Davin & Company. This was a very interesting experience. At the close, or rather before leaving the factory, we were permitted to witness the decoration of a workman who had been in the employment of the company for thirty-five years. It was really an affecting sight. We were told that in all that time he had not lost a day from sickness and the time had arrived when he was entitled to a pension. He was decorated by the head of the firm. At the close of the ceremonies he was surrounded by his family, relatives and members of the firm, and greeted in the usual way of the French with their own countrymen, that is to say, by kissing and embracing.

On Wednesday, September 27th, at seven in the morning, we left Grenoble for the French Alps. We had as a guide John Steel, an American who had been in France for fifteen years and had become a French citizen. He gave us much valuable information. He said, among other things, that when the railroads in France take freight they guarantee the time of delivery, if desired, and include an extra charge in the rate. On this trip we passed three companies of mounted guns, the technical name being mountain artillery. This was an interesting sight. A portion consisted of donkeys with all the paraphernalia of a soldier strapped to their backs, together with rapid firing mitrailleuses. The soldiers were unusually fine looking men from the Alpine district, a portion of France near the Swiss border.

[Illustration: Types from French Provinces.]

We visited a paper mill where the entire product was cardboard. We passed the "Escole de Garcons," otherwise a school for teaching waiters. We were told by Mr. Steel that in the valley adjoining that in which we were driving anthracite coal exists in abundance but has not been worked to any great extent. We passed mountain villages and noticed the cultivation of the sides of mountains almost perpendicular. It was a wonderful ride, amid splendid scenery, with numerous waterfalls, snow and glaciers in great abundance; in other words, we were going through the Switzerland of France. We passed a flock of sheep, more than five thousand in number, cared for by a head shepherdess, with several assistants and a number of dogs.

We had luncheon at the Grand Hotel Bourg D'Oison and stopped briefly at the hotel de La Meige.

On our return down the mountain we visited an electric manufacturing plant, the products being aluminum, magnesium, sodium, peroxide, sodium, oxolyte, calcium, and hydrated calcium. In this factory one of the commissioners had a narrow escape from certain injury, if not death, by attempting to taste the chemicals. He was stopped just in time.

We then visited the Chateau Vizille, built in the seventeenth century and at one time occupied by Casimer de Perier, President of France. Vizille was one of the three great marshalls of France, and the chateau is called the "Cradle of Liberty". The first French Revolutionary meeting was held here. The castle contained old cannon and splendid old furniture, while the surrounding grounds were beautiful.

On Thursday, September 28th, we visited the paper manufacturing plant of Berges at Lancey. There is an immense water-power installation here, the capacity of the plant being one hundred tons daily of all grades of paper. There are two plants, one a very old one, dating back nearly two hundred years, and the other a new one, not quite completed. We saw here one machine which cost one hundred and sixty thousand dollars, a remarkable piece of mechanism, almost human in its workings. The waterfall is six hundred feet in a short distance. Adjoining this paper mill was a small munition plant. Most of the employes were women, dressed in the American bloomer costume.

In the afternoon we had a meeting with the citizens and the Chamber of Commerce of Grenoble. The discussion took a very wide range—from the tariff question to the latest news from the front.

Next the party visited a plant for the manufacture of sheet steel by electricity.

In the evening we were banqueted at the Grand Hotel. On my right sat M. Paisant, Director General; on my left was Mr. Thomas W. Mutton, Vice-consul of the United States of America at Grenoble; near was was Mr. Tenot, Prefect of the district.

This part of France is noted for the amount of cement manufactured. Walnuts are grown in this section in large quantities. I discussed these things with Mr. Murton.

There was a discussion at the banquet over female suffrage and the birthrate, and this grew very animated.

On Friday, September 29th, we left Grenoble and stopped at Voiron and were here treated, at 9:30 A. M., with a "petit dejeuner". We next visited the monastery Grande. This was founded in the Twelfth century by St. Bruno. The present building was commenced and completed in the sixteenth century and the community originally had forty-two monks or fathers. This monastery is where the celebrated liquor, "Chartreuse", was manufactured, the basis of which is brandy, distilled flowers, and herbs. This formula was known only to the monks. While at the monastery in France each monk had an individual garden and an individual cell. When an extra penance seemed necessary special silence was given them and they were compelled to remain in their cells for months at a time. There were long corridors and in the basement places for servants and retainers. In the center of the grounds was a very beautiful place where the fathers were buried. We were told that the order was recruited mainly from the intellectual class, many of them widowers. Special rooms were reserved for travelers without money and without price.

[Illustration: Monastery of Chartreuse.]

The Carthusian order of Monks established themselves at Grenoble, France, in 1132. The original receipe for the famous cordial was given them in 1602 by Marshall d'Estress. Friar Jerome Maubec arranged the present formula in 1755, and it remained unchanged until their expulsion by the French Government, July 2nd, 1901. More than two hundred ingredients go to make up Chartreuse, and nowhere else in the world can this cordial be manufactured. Chartreuse is the unsolved enigma of French compounders of liqueurs. Its manufacture has ceased. It is quite true that at Tarragona, Spain, the monks still continue to make cordial under the name of "Peres Chartreux", but it is generally agreed that, owing to the change of locality and climate, the "Peres Chartreux" now made there is not equal to the old Chartreuse. There are a number of people in Grenoble who make imitation Chartreuse, but it is not so good as the real thing.

The monastery library contained twenty-two thousand volumes. These monks were also known as the Chartreusers, or Carthusian Monks. This was the head monastery, but there were branches in Italy, Spain, and Portugal. The fathers lived on a simple diet and no meat was allowed. They were not allowed to speak to each other except twice a week, on Sunday and Thursday. This old monastery is now used as a hospital for convalescents.

After this most interesting visit we were taken to luncheon at the Hotel du Grand Som, and later for a ride of one hundred miles in the military automobiles, through a mountainous country.

We arrived at Annecy at 8 P. M. and stopped at the Imperial Palace Hotel. This is one of the finest watering places in France. A beautiful lake surrounds the hotel, with mountains in the distance.

The next morning we called upon the Mayor and went through the usual speeches. We were given a boat ride on the lake. Then we visited an old castle. The coast looked very much like the coast of Maine between Bath and Squirrel Island. We were taken by boat from Annecy to Menthon and had luncheon at the Palace Hotel. Here Mr. Damour made his first speech, which was received so enthusiastically that he was kissed by nearly all the Frenchmen present.

We then visited an electric steel plant at Acierils, the French name being the "Electriques of Ugine". We were greeted by, among other things, a couple of American flags, but they were upside down.

We left Annecy at 5 P. M. for Lyons and stopped at the Terminus Hotel. We saw a number of tattooed soldiers, that is tattooed with powder marks, they having seen service.

On Sunday, October 1st, at 8 A. M. we left Lyons for Le Creusot, where the great French steel plant is located. A serious discussion was held on the train about going to the front and the dangers were depicted quite vividly. We stopped at Chagny, after passing a very old church dating back to the Tenth century. We saw, as we passed along, droves of beautiful white cows, with not a speck of color.



ARRIVING in Le Creusot we stopped at the Grand Hotel Moderne and had a most enjoyable Sunday evening. It was discovered that our French secretary, Emile Garden, had quite a tenor voice. He started in to sing the Marseilles Hymn, and it was not long until all the Commission joined, and then the hotel employes. Before we got through scores of people came in from the street to see what was going on. The incident was telegraphed by the newspaper correspondents to the Paris papers, and it aided in the work of the commissioners by showing their patriotism and sympathy for France.

We were told that there had been no strike at Le Creusot for twenty-five years. The employes wear a special sleeve decoration which indicates that they are in the same class as soldiers; that is to say, they are making cannon and munitions and working for France.

We were given a breakfast at the Schneider club house and then visited the plant. We were refused admission to the munitions plant. The works employ about twenty thousand men and two thousand women. The output of the plant is large projectiles, and for this reason the number of women employed is relatively small. A number of five hundred and twenty millimeter shells were shown to us; these shells are more than seven feet long and weigh a ton and a half. We were also shown the guns from which they are fired, but these were not quite completed. This plant contains four blast furnaces of very small capacity, making special grades of pig iron. The initial heat is not used, the steel being reheated and repoured. A good deal of Vanadium alloy is used, and this is made in America. At this plant we met Mr. Edmond Lemaitre, an engineer who had been in Youngstown employed as an inspector. All the employes, both men and women, wear wooden shoes. We noticed an absence of safety devices and safety notices. Armored cars were being manufactured for the government as well as armor plate, but this armor plate mill was away behind the mills in our own country.

We had luncheon at the club house, but no speeches were made. None of the proprietors or directors of the company was present. We then visited the company hospital, a part of which was occupied by electric devices for treating the wounded. Then we came to the home where the orphans of the employes are taken care of.

[Illustration: New 520-mm. Gun, Carrying Projectile Seven Feet in Length and Weighing 3,100 lbs., seen at Creusot Works.]

A great deal of attention is paid to the sanitary conditions and also to the uniforms of the men, and a great deal that is done for the workmen could be copied in our American plants. The history of these works, the greatest of their kind in France, is interesting. Their former ore supply, or at least a large part of it, was captured by the Germans near Verdun.

The name Creusot was first mentioned in an old charter in 1253. In the year 1502 coal was discovered there, and the year 1793 saw the opening of the Canal du Centre. During the French Revolution the plant was taken and exploited by the state and a little before the year 1800 was given back to its owners. During the Napoleonic wars much work was done here. In the year 1815, gun making was stopped and only coal mining was allowed.

The dynasty of the Schneiders continued for four generations; the last one, Charles Eugene Schneider, was born in 1868.

The first French locomotive was built at this plant and, in 1841, the first hammer moved by steam power.

In the year 1855 the Crimean war led to much activity at this plant. In 1867 ten thousand workmen were employed. In the year 1870 the first Bessemer steel produced in France, was made here, although the process had then been in use in the United States for six years.

Since 1884 these works have been exporting guns to many foreign countries.

In 1897 a large plant was built near Le Havre for the manufacture of naval guns. In 1882 they built large naval works near Bordeaux, and since 1906 they have been building the largest warships at that place. In 1909, at Hyeres, near Toulon, studying and making of torpedoes was begun, and this was followed in 1910 by submarines. Five plants are now scattered through France for this kind of work.

The Creusot works do not employ children under fourteen years of age. There are often three generations employed in this same kind of work, and some families have up to twenty members working in one plant. They have always been spared epidemics of any serious nature. With sanitary and prosperous homes, few deaths have occurred in the first year of life. The rate of deaths at Le Creusot is only ten per thousand while the average in France is 16 per thousand, and in bad industrial centers 25 per thousand. Eighty per cent. of the children are nursed by the mother. After the seventh month before birth mothers rest, and for a period after and during this time they receive the usual wages.

The first school was opened here in 1787. At the age of fourteen children can become apprentices and those of other towns or villages are often attracted. After they have a school certificate, entrance to the works is optional. From the age of twelve to sixteen years they must do military preparation, with flags and musical band. The brightest children go to high school to become engineers, and they are taught by the best professors in France. They pay back the cost of their education only when they have secured a good position. A thorough medical examination is necessary.

Since the year 1875 savings banks for children have existed.

The first domestic science school was organized in Europe in the year 1865 at Goteborg. At first all the mothers were opposed to these schools, but they soon favored them. One cannot enter these schools without a diploma from the common schools. Each teacher is given twenty-four pupils. The girls are taught to make their own apparel, gardening, cooking, washing, ironing, mending and keeping home expense accounts.

There are three classes of workmen. Ten selected, twenty auxiliaries, thirty uneducated laborers. In January, 1912 there were twenty thousand men employed. They all sign a full contract, after reading it, before getting into the works. The contract can be cancelled by either party with one week's notice. No proprietor of a saloon can work in the plant. From 1837 to 1911 the salaries have increased 130 per cent. In the year 1911 the total of salaries was nearly thirty-three million francs. The annual donations amount to three million francs. Delegates are nominated by the workmen for conference with the employers to suggest better conditions and improvements in working methods. Sixty-six per cent. of their suggestions or demands have been adopted and the result is peace and confidence. The company provides swimming pools, divided into two parts, one-half for adults and the other half for younger men and boys.

The homes are subject to constant sanitary inspection and all unsanitary buildings are destroyed. Safety appliances and all protecting apparatus are painted in brilliant red. There has been a constant study of the workman's house, since the eighteenth century. In 1840 the company had one hundred workmen's houses; in 1912 two thousand five hundred, and in addition to this hundreds of these houses have been bought by the workmen by slow annual payments added to the rent. The types of houses vary for one to four families. The rents are low and do not pay regular interest on the investment. Ground space for gardens is furnished by the company, with annual competitions and rewards for the best results. Trees and seeds are furnished at nominal prices. There are two thousand, two hundred and fifty gardens under cultivation.

The savings bank is managed by the company and safe investments are made for the workmen, returns of from three to five per cent, on savings being guaranteed.

In the year 1911, eight thousand workmen's accounts reached thirteen million francs. The chief use of the savings is to buy homes. The total amount advanced to workmen for building houses since 1845 was five million francs, of which only eighty-three thousand, five hundred are not yet paid back.

Co-operative societies for reducing the cost of living are organized to enable the workmen to get supplies at cost. They were started and managed by the Schneider Company and gradually left in the hands of the workmen themselves.

Club houses are maintained with tennis courts, fencing bouts, games, gymnasiums, a children's theatre, gun clubs, rowing clubs and musical societies. The time spent in rehearsing for orchestras is not deducted from the pay. Free medical attendance for the workman and his family is given. Emergency and base hospitals are provided by the company. Modern and up-to-date mutual benefit societies are managed by the workmen. Old age pensions have been financed differently during the last century and are now supported by one per cent. from the workman, two per cent. from the Schneider Company, and three per cent. from the State.

Houses are provided for men over sixty years of age, and when it is possible aged couples are kept together.

We reached Dole at 9 o'clock P. M. on Monday, October 2nd.

Dole is the birthplace of Pasteur, the great French scientist who discovered the antidote for hydrophobia. His name is known throughout the world.



AFTER leaving Dole, the next stop on our itinerary was Besancon, from which we entered the zone of actual hostilities. For us this town was the gateway to "The Front" and therefore a point of more than usual interest. Here we were asked to sign the following paper, which all members of the commission did on October 4th, we having reached the town at midnight on October 2nd.


Besancon, October 4, 1916.

The itinerary arranged for the American Industrial Commission includes several days' sojourn at the "front", which is considered of importance in the prosecution of its investigation, particularly as preliminary to a conference in Paris with the "American Centrale pour la Reprise de l' Activite Industrielle dans Les Regions Envahies."

The danger of such a trip is fully recognized and hereby admitted, and although the extraordinary risk inseparably connected with a trip to Europe at this time has been accepted by us all, yet, in the present case

Each of the undersigned by this means records for himself his voluntary assumption by him of all responsibility in connection therewith, and furthermore, asserts that neither by coercion, persuasion, nor even by suggestion on the part of the Chairman, or otherwise, has his course been determined.

M. W. W. Nichols,
M. J. G. Butler, Jr.
M. A. B. Farquhar,
M. G. B. Ford,
M. S. F. Hoggson,
M. J. F. Le Maistre,
M. J. R. Mac Arthur,
M. Le Dr. C. O. Mailloux,
M. C. G. Pfeiffer,
M. J. E. Sague,
M. E. A. Warren,
M. E. V. Douglass,
M. E. Garden.


We were met by the military automobiles at the station, two soldiers in each auto. I was accosted at the station by a number of wounded English soldiers. It seemed good to hear a little English spoken. One of the soldiers reached out his hand as I passed and said, "How are you?" We were domiciled at the Hotel Europe. The windows were barred with iron shutters excluding light and fresh air. Early the following morning we were treated to the sight of more than one thousand German prisoners, just captured and being taken to the camp at Besancon.

This was the birthplace of Victor Hugo, who was born February 26th, 1802. Old Roman ruins were very much in evidence, among them an old Roman citadel and a Roman theatre. By tradition, St. John the Baptist was buried here. We visited the underground water works and the Cathedral of St. Jean and saw in this church many paintings of the Holy Family and other religious representations. There were two immense holes in this cathedral, the result of bombs fired from the German guns in 1914, in the beginning of the war.

[Illustration: German Prisoners Passing Through the Village of St. Etienne.]

I saw here a girl and a dog hitched to the same cart, hauling a load of vegetables; they both seemed contented.

Luncheon was served by the Chamber of Commerce at the Resturant De Besancon. In the evening we were given a banquet at the Besancon Hotel de Ville. Up to this time I had been with the Commission five weeks, but on account of my patriotic utterances in private and my quite apparent sympathy with the French people, was not urged to speak. It had been, however, arranged that I was to talk at Le Creusot, but there was not a representative gathering to talk to there, and this Besancon banquet seemed to be the proper place. After some pressure of other members of the Commission I was requested to speak. This was really the first note of human sympathy sounded. I first spoke in English, which not more than two or three in the audience, outside of the Commissioners, understood, although there were about one hundred present. At the conclusion of my talk it was translated into French by Mr. MacArthur. When he got through I was surrounded by the Frenchmen present and congratulated as well as embraced by practically the entire audience. This address is reproduced by special request of some of the members of the Commission who heard it.


I am afraid my aeroplane French will not be understood by our good friends present. I tried it on a number of our Franco-American orators, and they, with one accord, said it was fine and beautiful, but they could not understand a word I was saying. I will, therefore, ask my fellow-traveler and sympathizer, Mr. MacArthur, to read the brief address I have prepared, apologizing through him for the lamentable fact that I speak English only.

This gives me an opportunity of saying that by special letter of authorization issued by Dr. Ricketts President of the American Institute of Mining Engineers, I represent that important organization during our mission in France. The American Institute of Mining Engineers is composed of more than six thousand members, all technical, scientific and practical men. The organization has been in existence more than a quarter of a century, and has rendered invaluable service to our mining and manufacturing interests in the United States. This scientific body of men stand ready to render such service to France as France may desire and it is hoped this suggestion may receive serious consideration.

Gentlemen: When our good ship, the Lafayette, passed through the river entering the port of Bordeaux, we beheld a most beautiful sunset, such as Cazin would have painted. As we beheld this glorious vision, it flashed through my mind that France is fighting for its existence among nations, and my heart went out to all France in loving sympathy. As we landed and progressed on our journey, this feeling of reverence and affection for the French people became intensified. The French spirit insures victory—a victory which, when gained, will be substantial and enduring, worthy of the great people who are pouring out their life blood and treasure to attain this end.

Everywhere we have been impressed with the earnestness of the women in France. All the thousands we have seen at their employment impressed me with their desire to help save the country. In a word, as I looked upon their faces, all seemed to express the thought, "We are working for France". This slogan goes all over your fair land and is a mighty factor in the progress of the conflict. Signs of loss were everywhere from Bordeaux to Paris, and in our wanderings since, but not a word of complaint have we heard.

Our visit to the birthplace of your countryman, Lafayette, was looked forward to with intense interest, and the visit was a keen realization of the expectation. As our worthy President, Mr. Nichols, raised his glass and asked that we pause for a moment in silence and think of the great man who was the companion and aide of Washington, "first in war, first in peace, and first in the hearts of his countrymen," there was not a dry eye in the room. All present realized the close relationship between France and the United States—cemented and welded for all time to come by the early sympathy of France for our struggling colonies, and the great assistance rendered by Lafayette to Washington in our time of need, and which resulted in our independence.

In the present struggle of France, we owe it to the French people to aid in all possible ways. I believe that a great majority of the citizens of the United States are in sympathy with France and their prayers are for your success and freedom.

It may not be out of place in this connection to mention, although somewhat personal, that when Lafayette, visited the United States in 1824, my grandfather, whose name I bear, attended a reception given the great Frenchman in Philadelphia, and has often told me about it, dwelling upon the enthusiasm with which Lafayette was everywhere greeted during his triumphant tour through the country. I have also in my autograph collection a three page patriotic letter written by Lafayette in 1824 during his visit. I prize this letter most highly.

Another fact I may mention, and it gives me profound pleasure to do so. France, in spite of her troubles, carried out her compact, and sent to the Panama-Pacific Exposition at San Francisco, a magnificent collection of paintings and sculpture. Many examples of both were loaned from the Luxembourgh, and there were a number of pieces of priceless sculpture by Rodin, your great sculptor, whose work is famous the world over. The exhibit also contained many notable examples of work by other French and Belgian artists. After the exhibition closed we were fortunate enough to have the collection exhibited at my home, Youngstown, Ohio, for a period of thirty days, under the auspices of The Mahoning Institute of Art. We were told that some of the examples were for sale, and if sold, the proceeds would help the artists, and assist in the great work being carried on to aid the hospitals of France. We, therefore, made a common cause, buying a number of paintings and one piece of sculpture, thus doing our bit to help the good work along, besides securing for our country some splendid examples of the art of France. The exhibit was obtained through the courtesy of Monsieur Jean Guiffrey, Minister of Fine Arts in France, and to whom we are profoundly grateful. In this connection I may add that the United States is largely indebted to France for influence upon American art. Nearly all of our great painters and sculptors received their initial education in France and the influence upon American art and artists by French masters is incalculable. This is one of the debts of the United States to France which can never be fully repaid.

The commission is in France, first, bearing America's good will, and second, to investigate and render such substantial aid to France as may be in our power, having in mind always the great friendship existing between the two republics, and which we hope our mission will strengthen. We venture to hope that our journey through France in war time will also result in the increased exchange of commodities between the two countries, a consummation devoutly to be wished.

I thank you, gentlemen, from the bottom of my heart and bid you God speed in the great work of saving France.

At this noted banquet there were several generals present, some of whom had been in the service but a short time previous, and one of them famous the world over. We were not permitted to mention the names of any of the generals we met while in the war zone.



ON Wednesday, October 4th, we left for the front in military automobiles. We passed through a farming district and through several small villages. Nearly all who were at work in the fields were women. It all seemed quite peaceful, considering that the battle fields were so near. We stopped at Monte Billiard, in the Champagne district, where we were addressed by the mayor and a response was made by Mr. Pfeiffer. Cuvier, the great French scientist, was born here in the year 1769, and died in 1832. We were now, as I should have mentioned before, in that part of Alsace-Lorraine again in possession of the French. We visited at Monte Billiard, a Fifteenth century castle and a new hospital. Red Cross girls were very much in evidence, a number of them American and English. We were quartered at the Hotel de la Balanie, built in 1790. We visited the factory of Japy Freres. This concern makes a specialty of steel helmets, canteens and porcelain ware for the use of the army.

We arrived at Beaucort at midnight, and after settling down to rest, were awakened by the booming of cannon, which was continuous during the night. We were aroused the following morning by the town crier, passing along the street, wearing a peculiar uniform, beating a drum and calling out the news.

At Beaucort we were shown through a castle now occupied as a hospital. It was originally a chateau, and at that time a citadel with moat and draw-bridge.

In company with Mr. Warren, I visited the village blacksmith, being reminded of my boyhood days. He had old-fashioned bellows and, with an assistant, was in a small way finishing up some work for the army.

We arrived at Belfort at about noon, and first saw the "Belfort Lion" by Bartholdi, the sculptor of the Statue of Liberty in New York Harbor. It is seventy-three feet long, forty-three feet high and is carved in a cliff below the citadel. This statue celebrates the stubborn resistance of the town of Belfort, which has never surrendered, although besieged on numerous occasions. Belfort has been exposed to German guns, less than ten miles away, for two years, and it is much shattered from bombardments. Many of the citizens are still engaged in their ordinary pursuits, but live in the cellars of their domiciles.

We were quartered at the Le Grande Hotel, and could hear the cannons roaring as we sat at luncheon. We were warned not to go out of the hotel without a companion. There was a cave underneath with both an inside and an outside entrance and we were told that in case the shelling was resumed we should get into this cave. There had been, however, no shelling for eight days. The town was shelled immediately after the departure of the Canadian Industrial Commission, which had recently visited Belfort.

[Illustration: The Lion of Belfort.]

The shutters of the hotel were closed at six P. M. I was taken to my room by the chambermaid and handed a candle and a box of matches. With all the lights of the hotel out, the cannon could be heard booming during the entire night. Belfort is under martial law, or, as it is called in France, military control. Just before retiring for the night we were reminded that the city was frequently shelled and that nearly all the inhabitants slept in the caves, a pleasant thought to go to bed with. However, strange to say, I had a most excellent night's rest.

No one was permitted outside the hotel unless he had with him a card to show the police of the town.

Belfort contains numerous monuments. One series of statues is of three generals who defended Belfort during the three sieges successfully resisted. Two of these sieges occurred during the time of Napoleon and one during the Franco-Prussian war, 1870-1871. We walked about in a body, escorted by a military officer and a number of soldiers. We visited a large part of the city and at nearly every corner there were signs showing the entrances to caves and stating the number of persons each cave would hold—all the way from twenty to seventy. Evidence was all around of bombs dropped from aeroplanes by the Germans and shells fired by them from many miles away, there being hundreds of shattered windows and holes in the sidewalks.

We remained in Belfort two nights. The morning after our departure the city was bombarded and some fifteen or twenty people killed.

On Friday, October 6th, we left Belfort in the military autos, under sealed orders, and knew not where we were going. We passed several squads of German prisoners, among them one very large company. We were frequently challenged by sentinels in passing, for miles, along the front of Alsace-Lorraine.

Alsace-Lorraine has had forty-five years of German rule. The elder people are not Germanized, and it is quite evident that France will not be satisfied until the whole province has been restored.

We stopped for luncheon at Remiremont, in the Vosges mountains, and while here visited an old church dating back to the Eleventh century. This church contained, among other things, a statue of the Virgin Mary carved in cedar, the gift to the church of Charlemagne. There is also at this place a Thirteenth century arcade, through which we passed. We bought a few relics and then left Remiremont at 4:30 P. M. for a dash into Alsace and close up to the battle-front.

We arrived at Bussane at 5 P. M., after being held up several times. We next reached Thann, a village once in German hands and two miles from the German lines. This town had been bombarded by the Germans early in the war. The destruction was fearful to look at; buildings were damaged beyond repair, and one church nearly ruined. As we passed along in a dense fog, one of the guides ran past each machine saving; "Shentlemen, this is a beautiful sight, but you can't see it."

At Thann we were shown the spot where the son of Prime Minister Borthon, of France, was killed by a bomb.

After an inspection of Thann, we drove to Gerardmere to spend the night. It was bright moonlight and we were told there was a great deal of danger from German aeroplanes. This was a long night ride, but considered much safer than going through this part of the country in day-light.

We experienced great difficulty in getting back to the French line from Alsace-Lorraine. In doing so we passed through a tunnel entering Alsace-Lorraine territory, within a half-mile of the German firing line. We saw a hill which has been taken and retaken a number of times and was then in possession of the Germans. We were exposed to the German guns for half an hour and could hear the roaring constantly. At this point the soldier chauffeurs put on steel helmets and placed revolvers near their right hands, taking from boxes in the machine a number of hand grenades. This was all very cheerful for the occupants of the car to witness, inasmuch as we did not have any helmets or hand grenades or anything else which would enable us to help ourselves in case of conflict.

We reached Gerardmere in time for dinner and stopped over night at the Hotel de la Providence. This was a most interesting French village. We were called the advance guard of tourists and were really the first to have visited the place. Signs of war could be seen everywhere. We saw here pontoon wagons. We also saw immense loads of bread being hauled around in army wagons and looking like loads of Bessemer paving block. During the night of our stay in Gerardmere, we were awakened by the booming of cannons.

We left Gerardmere, going north and, passing a hill named "Bonhomme", over which French and Germans have fought back and forward. It is now in possession of both forces, armies being entrenched on either side of the hill and within one mile of the summit.

We passed through a number of small villages completely riddled; one village had but a single house left untouched.

Our next stop was at St. Die. This is the village where the word "Amerique" was first used in France. A tablet recalls this circumstance, the wording on it being as follows:

Here the 15th April 1507 has
been printed the "Cosmographic
Introduction" where, for the first
time the New Continent has
been named "America."

Leaving St. Die we began a trip of more than fifty miles along the battle front. This trip required two days, and we were never beyond the sound of the guns.

Our first stop was at the battlefield of La Chipotte, where was fought one of the most sanguinary of the earlier battles of war, resulting in a great French victory, but entailing terrific losses on both sides. In the greater part of this region we saw forests which had been stripped by shells and the trees of which were only beginning to grow again. In some places they will never grow, having been stripped of every leaf and limb and finally burned by the awful gunfire.

The battle of La Chipotte was fought in 1914. Sixty thousand French drove back a larger army of Germans after several days of fighting. The French loss was thirty thousand, and no one knows what the German loss amounted to. The woods are filled with crosses marking burial places, where often as many as fifty bodies were entombed together. The French buried their dead separately from the German dead, but the community graves are all marked in the same way—with a simple cross. Some of these crosses recite the names of the companies engaged, but few of them give the names of the dead. Most of them simply record the number of French or Germans buried beneath.

At a central part of the battlefield the French have erected a handsome monument, with the following inscription:

"They have fallen down silently
like a wall.
May their glorious souls guide
us in the coming battles."

After leaving the battlefield of La Chipotte, we next reached the village of Roan Estape. It was full of ruins and practically deserted. Beyond this village we passed for miles along roads lined on either side with the crosses which indicate burial places of soldiers. The battle front here extended for a long distance and the fighting was bloody along the whole line. Much of this righting was done in the old way, trench warfare having only just begun.

[Illustration: Battlefield of La Chipotte, Showing Monument and Markers on Graves.]

Next we came to Baccarat, where nearly all the houses and the cathedral were utterly wrecked. For twenty miles beyond this town we passed along the battle front of the Marne, within three miles of where the main struggle had taken place, and saw everywhere graves and signs of destruction. It was surprising how the country had begun to resume its normal aspect and green things begun to take hold again. Our next stop was Rambevillers, where we had luncheon at the Hotel de la Porte.



AFTER luncheon at Rambevillers, we drove to the famous village of Gerbeviller—or rather to what is left of it. This little town is talked of more than any other place in France, and is called the "Martyr City". Its story is one of the most interesting told us, and to me it seemed one of the most tragic, although the residents of the town all wanted to talk about it with pride. While on the way to Gerbeviller we had to show our passes, and it was lucky they were signed by General Joffre, since nothing else goes so close to the front. We were made to tell where we were going, how long we meant to stay, and what route we would take coming back.

Prefect Mirman, of the Department of Meurthe and Moselle, one of the most noted and most useful men in France, escorted the commission on this trip.

Gerbeviller is located near the junction of the valleys of Meurthe and Moselle, and occupied a strategic situation at the beginning of the war. This and the heroic defense made of the bridge by a little company of French soldiers, was, the French believe, responsible for its barbarous treatment by the Germans. In the other ruined towns the destruction was wrought by shell fire. Here the Germans went from house to house with torches and burned the buildings after resistance had ceased and they were in full possession of the town. The French say it was done in wanton revenge and it looks as if that were true. Here is the story as it was told to us in eager French and interpreted for us by one of the party.

A bridge leading from the town crosses the river to a road which goes straight up a long hill to a main highway leading to Luneville, five miles away. We passed over this bridge and were asked to note its width—only enough to permit the passage of one car at a time. Two roads converge at it and lead to the little town.

During one of the important conflicts an army of 150,000 Germans was sent around by way of Luneville to cross the river at Gerbeviller and fall upon the right flank of the French army. The French had been able to spare but few troops for this point, but they had barricaded the streets of the town and posted a company of chasseurs, seventy-five in number, at the bridge with a mitralleuse. This was an excellent position, as there was a small building there which screened the chasseurs from view.

[Illustration: Ruins of Gerbeviller.]

At 8 o'clock in the morning the German advance body, twelve thousand strong, appeared at the intersection of the road near the top of the hill across the river. They advanced in solid formation, marching in the goose step and singing, to the music of a band, their war hymn, "Deutchland Uber Alles." It was a beautiful morning and the sun glistened on the German helmets as they came down the slope, an apparently innumerable army. In this form they reached the end of the bridge opposite to where the chasseurs were located. The captain of that little band of French ordered them to halt, and they did so, the rear ranks closing up on those in front before the order could be passed along by their commander.

In a moment, however, the column began to move again and then the captain of the chasseurs waved his hand and the mitralleuses opened on the advancing host. The range was point blank and there was absolutely no protection. The hail of bullets mowed down the Germans and they broke ranks, fleeing back up the hill and out of range.

All was quiet for half an hour and then a detachment of cavalry, evidently ordered to rush the bridge, came down at a gallop, having been formed in the shelter of a road branching off the main highway a short distance from the bridge. They were met by a hail of bullets and nearly all went down before they reached the bridge, while the few who did so fell on it or tumbled, with their horses, into the river.

The whole German force was delayed until a battery could be brought up from the rear and trained on the small building sheltering the chasseurs and their machine guns. For some reason, the gunners could not get the range on this small building, and after firing a few shots in its direction, turned their guns on the magnificent chateau, a short distance down the river. At this point there was a small foot bridge, and the German commander evidently meant to try to rush it. Before doing so, however, he was going to make certain that the Chateau, which commanded it, did not conceal another band of defenders. This seems to be the only explanation for the bombardment of the Chateau, which was one of the finest country homes in France and entirely unoccupied. At any rate, they fired shell after shell at the building. I secured a picture of this which shows the work of the guns.

But, as the French tell the story, no effort was then made to cross the foot bridge below the town. A battery was swung down the hill to the end of the bridge, apparently to shell the defenders from that point. The machine guns barked again and every man with the battery fell. Scores more were killed before it could be withdrawn and the way cleared. Owing to the steep banks it seemed hard for the Germans to locate a battery in an unexposed position, and they considered again. Finally they shelled the Chateau some more and then sent a detachment to take that bridge, expecting to get around in the rear of the chasseurs. A machine gun had been sent to the footbridge in the meantime, and the Germans did not get across it until the ammunition ran out and two hundred of them were killed. When they did cross, the little band at the main bridge, of whom one had been killed and six wounded, retreated to the main army, and then the Germans crossed in force and started to burn the town.

The heroes of the bridge had held the German advance guard, numbering 12,000 men, from 8 in the morning until 4 in the afternoon, and in the meantime the great battle they had expected to win had been fought and lost.

Naturally the Germans were angry, and apparently they vented their spleen upon the village. The great Chateau, its pride and chief attraction, had been destroyed, but the conquerors at once begun to burn the little town, evidently determining to reserve only enough to make a place for headquarters for their general. They did burn it, but not so completely as they had intended.

[Illustration: Sister Julie.]

Here is where Sister Julie comes in. Sister Julie is the most popular woman in France as well as the most famous. We heard of her long before we got to Gerbeviller and long after we left, but we were not fortunate enough to meet her, as she was away at the time the Commission reached the town. Although a member of a religious order, she has been decorated with the grand cross of the Legion of Honor—the highest decoration France confers upon her heroes. To pin this on her habit President Poincaire journeyed all the way from Paris with his suite, and now Sister Julie will not wear it. She says that religeuse do not wear decorations—they are doing the work of the Lord.

In describing Sister Julie and her work the people of Gerbeviller are even more enthusiastic than in recounting the manner in which seventy-five Frenchmen stopped twelve thousand Germans. It seems that when the German forces crossed the bridge and began to burn the houses they met with little resistance until they came to the convent where Sister Julie and her companions had a house filled with wounded, including the wounded chasseurs. The sister met them at the door and defied them to burn her convent. She ordered them off and made a such a show of determination that they went. No, they will tell you, these French people, Sister Julie is not an Amazon. She is a little woman. Her voice is usually mild and sweet and she smiles all the time. But when they tried to burn her temporary hospital, it was different. She scared them off and they did not come back.

Not only that, but she made the Germans carry water and put out the fires they had started in the neighborhood, and made them fill wash tubs with water and leave them in her hall, so they would be handy if more fires threatened.

Besides that, she organized the men and went to the barns where cattle had been burned and had these dressed and the meat prepared for use. Then she made great kettles of soup and fed the people who had no homes and nothing to eat. In all of this she defied the Germans and told their commander to mind his own business—she was going to attend to hers. When some of the German soldiers came and wanted to take the food prepared for the homeless people, Sister Julie ordered them away and made them go.

There were five other nuns in this convent. Under the leadership of this heroine they did a tremendous amount of good in the stricken community. They used the building next door to the convent for a hospital and there cared for hundreds of wounded soldiers. They assumed charge of the demoralized town and kept the people from starving. No one gives them greater credit than Prefect Mirman, who has also done great work in his department.

We were shown through the convent and hospital under the care of these sisters, and saw many places where bullets had penetrated the walls, these were fired by the Germans after they crossed the bridge. In this hospital the sisters cared for the German wounded as tenderly as for the French, and they won the respect of the invaders in this way, otherwise it would have probably been impossible for them to do the work they did. We saw the camp chair on which Sister Julie sat all night in front of the hospital and kept the Germans out.

The Commission spent the greater part of the day in Gerbeviller, visiting the bridge where the seventy-five chasseurs held up the German advance, as well as that where one lone chasseur—a regular "Horatio at the Bridge", kept back the attacking party at the Chateau.

We went through this chateau, which is owned by a resident of Paris and was one of the sights of the village. It is seven or eight hundred years old and is a very large building, handsomely finished in the interior. Before the bombardment, which was a ruthless and unnecessary piece of vandalism, it contained many fine tapestries and countless precious heirlooms of the Bourbon times. The great strength of the walls resisted the effects of artillery, but the interior was entirely ruined by fire. The grand marble staircase was splintered, but the Bourbon coat of arms above it was not touched. Strewn about in corners and on the floors were fragments of vases and art work that must have been priceless. Even these fragments were valuable. We secured a number of small pieces, some of which I brought home as relics.

While viewing the ruins of the chateau we could hear the guns booming. It was while we were still here that we received news that bombs had been dropped on Belfort that morning, twenty-four hours after we left that place, and that a number of persons had been killed, among them some women and children.

Gerbeviller is an almost complete ruin. Beyond the convent and hospital, and a few buildings saved for headquarters for the commanding general by the Germans, all the rest of the town was destroyed. The people who remain there are living in temporary buildings or mere sheds built on the ruins of their homes, which they do not want to leave under any circumstances. This little town, which has won its place in history, was one of the most interesting and melancholy sights we saw in all France.

On the following day, Saturday, October 7th, we visited the villages of Luneville and Vitrimont. We were now in the "devastated region" for sure. On every hand was evidence of the ruin wrought by shells, with long lines of trenches that had once been filled with soldiers. Some of these were green again, but the trees presented a woeful appearance.

The next stop after leaving Rambevillers was the little town of Vitrimont. This is a small village in France, almost wholly ruined by the Germans in 1914, preceding the battle of the Marne. We found there Miss Daisy Polk, of San Francisco, a wealthy, young and attractive woman, whose work is being financed largely by the Crockers, of San Francisco.

She is living in one of the small houses untouched by the Germans. She has undertaken the rebuilding of the village of Vitrimont as a modern sanitary proposition and to serve as a model for what may be done in rebuilding all the destroyed parts of France. She is the great-granddaughter of President Polk. It is a splendid work and should receive support.

I have since received the following letter from Miss Polk:

Vitrimont, par Luneville, Meurthe et Moselle, France.
October 18th, 1916

Dear Mr. Butler:—

Your note, with the Commission booklet, received and I want to thank you for remembering me. The visit of the Industrial Commission was a most delightful surprise to me here in the midst of my ruins and it is very nice to have a souvenir—especially such a nice souvenir, with all the names and photographs.

Vitrimont looks very much as it did when you were here except that the work is a little more advanced in spite of the rain. We are not hoping any longer that the war will end this winter—so we are sad. Especially when we have to see our men go back to the front after their all too short leaves. This has happened three times since you were here, all three going back to the Somme, too, which they all say is much worse than Verdun ever was. However, they have the satisfaction, as one of our men said today, (a fine industrious farmer) of hoping that if they don't come back, at least their wives and children will have their homes rebuilt. This is my hope too. Thanking you again for your letter.

Very sincerely yours,

(Signed) DAISY POLK.

Miss Polk is a most charming young woman, filled with enthusiasm. She lives in a small house with but two rooms.



WE arrived at Nancy October 7th, at six o'clock P. M. and spent the evening at a reception given by the Prefect L. Mirman. We met here Madam Mirman and her two daughters. In the entrance to the prefect's residence were several large holes which had been blown out by the German shells. During the reception we were shown an embroidered sheet, filled with holes. This was taken from the window of a hospital, fired on by the Germans, July, 1916. The name of the hospital was Point Au Mousson. The sheet was hanging in a window when the shrapnel was fired into it. This was considered ample proof that the hospital was fired upon with the full knowledge that it was a hospital.

This visit to prefect Mirman's home was a red letter event in our trip. He is one of the important men of France and is devoting much of his time to the care of refugees and other good work.

As we stopped at the entrance of Nancy, we saw an aeroplane flying over the town. This aeroplane was intended to convoy us to our destination.

Next day we were driven to the village of Luneville. At this place, as in nearly all the towns of France, there is a public market house, with stalls usually presided over by women. Late in September the Germans dropped from aeroplanes a number of bombs on this market house. The entire building was destroyed and forty-one women killed, besides a number of children who were playing about. We saw the ruins of the market house. This sort of battle waging is called "German terrorism", otherwise, a "stepping stone to kultur".

There is an immense palace in Luneville called the Palace of Stanislaus, occupied by a former King of Poland.

Our headquarters were at Nancy, where we remained for two days. We were shown every possible attention by the prefect and under his guidance visited various parts of the city. Among other places "The Golden Gates" of Louis XVI and the gate of the old town erected in 1336. We visited the park and were shown a hole where a German shell had penetrated, the hole being fully fifty feet deep. We visited the cathedral of St. Elme and were shown where the beautiful stained glass had been blown out of the windows. We visited the Ducal Chapel, which dates back to the Tenth century, where the princes of the House of Hapsburg are entombed. Sand bags were piled up everywhere to prevent further ruin to this ancient place. We were shown the ruins of the cooking school reported by German aviators as a military building and for that reason destroyed.

[Illustration: Cathedral at Nancy.]

Practically one-half of the town is in ruins. The military barracks are now used for housing and caring for refugees from all over France and this is done with great system. The expense is figured down to one franc per day for each person. We saw there a children's school, playground, orphanage and Cinema show, and attended church services at which were present several thousand refugees. We could hear the cannon booming during the entire services. Many of the refugees were at work making bags for the trenches and embroidering. We visited the museum and were shown tombs and urns dating back to the Second century. During a luncheon at the Cafe Stanislaus an impassioned address was made by the prefect.

We left Nancy at 2 P. M. for Chalons on the Marne, one of the three important military supply centers of France. En-route we passed a number of ruined villages with scarcely a house left and with but few inhabitants. We passed through Bar Le Duc also, another distributing center. On this memorable part of the journey we skirted three battle fronts, Verdun, Somme and the Marne. We noticed numerous trench soldiers in squads, enroute to and from the trenches.

The discipline of the French army is very much different from that of the English and Germans. The officers and the French soldiers are comrades. The German and French soldiers have no tents, they sleep in their overcoats. I expected that when we got into the war zone we would see tents everywhere, but there was not a tent in sight.

The distance from Nancy to Chalons on the Marne is 108 miles. All this distance we travelled close in the rear of the French army and much of it near the German army. In the early part of the year this ground was occupied by the Germans, being afterwards retaken by the French. We were closest to the trenches when passing St. Miheil, where the famous German salient was still held.

We reached Chalons on the Marne at 10 o'clock on the evening of October 8th, after a busy and most interesting day. We were quartered here for the night and remained part of the next morning. During our stay we could hear the booming of guns continuously, and saw many evidences of military occupation. At this time the Germans had been forced back about thirty miles from Chalons on the Marne, and their shells were no longer feared in this immediate vicinity. The cannon we heard along the greater portion of the route after passing Bar Le Duc must have been French guns, although the German big guns can be heard for fifty miles under favorable circumstances.

At Chalons on the Marne an incident occurred which made a deep impression on me, although it was in itself simple enough. It was my custom to go about much seeking to see whatever was to be seen at all of our stops. Usually I had a companion, but sometimes went alone. On this occasion Mr. Warren, of the Commission, was with me. We had entered the Cathedral of Notre Dame, to inspect its interior and arrived just as a funeral service was ending. It was one of those pathetic funerals, now common enough in France, at which the body is not present, in this case being that of a young man killed in the army and evidently an only son.

The services ended with a procession around the church and this brought the mourners to where we were. We fell in with them, this being our natural impulse and also, we believed, the proper and courteous thing to do, rather than to rudely retire. When the party reached the main aisle, the friends gathered around the father and mother and two daughters, weeping with them and kissing them in the demonstrative way the French have of showing both grief and affection. Before we knew just what to do, the mourners melted away, taking with them the mother and daughters. Mr. Warren also had disappeared and I was left practically alone with the father of the dead boy. He approached me and extended his hand, having perhaps read in my face something of my feelings. He knew no English and I knew no French, but the language of human sympathy is universal. We grasped hands and the only word uttered was my crude "Americaine." None other was needed. I could tell by the pressure of the hand holding mine that my sympathy was appreciated, even though I was from across the seas and an utter stranger, and any doubts I had felt about the propriety of remaining were thoroughly dispelled.

[Illustration: German Trenches Captured by the French.]

Funerals such as this are very frequent in France. Scarcely a family but has suffered its loss, and in some cases several sons have been taken from one home. Among the hundreds of personal cards brought back with me from France, an astonishing number are bordered deeply with black. These are the cards of the most prominent people in the places we visited, the members of the Commission having met few others, and the mourning border on so many of them shows that in France as well as in England, the upper classes have borne their full share of the terrific toll levied by the war.

Before leaving Chalons on the Marne we visited the canal, the banks of which were lined with flowers and ivy. We crossed here a bridge built in the Seventeenth century and still in good condition.



SOME time during the forenoon of the day following our arrival at Chalons on the Marne we left in the military automobiles for Reims. This city is on the south branch of the river Aisne, on which the Germans made their stand after the battle of the Marne, and had been within reach of their guns constantly since they stopped retreating after that battle. It is about ninety miles from Paris. The city was at that time less than two miles from the actual battle line, trenches extending close up to its edges. The Germans were very busy and there was abundant evidence of the fact in the sound of cannon. It was here that we were to be allowed a visit to the trenches.

On the way we passed a large number of Hindu-Chinese and Russian soldiers. We saw two captive balloons, used by the French to direct artillery fire on their enemies. Thousands of soldiers were coming and going between the trenches and the encampments behind.

On this trip we passed through and stopped briefly at an aviation camp, where the aviators were tending their machines and waiting to be called for duty in the air. A short stop was also made at a large encampment, where there must have been at least twenty thousand French soldiers. This was the largest number we saw at any one time. Here we were shown concealed trenches and batteries so skillfully hidden that they could not be seen until you were right upon the guns. We also saw on this ride several illustrations of how bridges and other military works can be hidden from aviators by painted scenery and the use of trees. By 11 A.M. of this day we had come within five miles of the German trenches, behind which, we were told, were more two million German soldiers and across from them at least an equal number of French. Of this vast number of warriors we saw at no time more than twenty thousand. Many were in the trenches and others in encampments on both sides, within easy reach of the lines but secure from gun fire.

We came to the top of a ridge near Reims, and just before reaching the summit orders were given by the sentinels to separate the automobiles and run them half a mile apart, as they would be within range of German guns and might draw the fire if seen in a company. At this point two members of the Commission suddenly lost their interest in the scenes ahead and refused to go any further. From this time until we entered Reims, batteries, many of them concealed, with other signs of real war, became more numerous.

[Illustration: The Reims Cathedral Before Its Destruction.]

At 11:30 A. M. we entered the famous Champagne district, known all over the world as the locality where grapes for making champagne can be raised better than anywhere else. We saw here farmers and women working in the fields and vineyards within a mile of the actual front. They were within range of German guns and in great danger, but they worked on, seemingly careless of the fact.

We passed many "dugouts" occupied by soldiers, and saw soldiers digging trenches. All the time the guns were roaring, apparently just beyond the city of Reims. This ground had all been at one time in the hands of the Germans.

We reached Reims at noon and were taken direct to the City Club. Here the Commission was entertained by Robert Lewthwaite, the head of the great wine firm of Heidsick & Company. At this luncheon we met Col. Tautot, chief of staff under General Lanquelot, commander in the Reims sector. Col. Tautot represented his superior, who could not be present, probably because of more important engagements with the Germans. We also met Captain Talamon, a staff officer, and Jacques Regnier, sub-prefect of the Reims district. Col. Tautot had been invested with the ribbon of the Legion of Honor and within a week of our visit had been in active service. Out of fifteen members originally on the staff, he alone survived, all the others having been killed in action or died of wounds.

In the room where luncheon was served at the City Club was a great hole, made through the wall by a shell and not yet closed. We were told that this shell had arrived a few days before our visit. This was quite appetizing information, but our hosts assured us that we were comparatively safe, as there had been no firing for some time. I took their word for it and enjoyed the luncheon after the long and keenly interesting ride. At this luncheon a curious toast was offered by the host—"I looks toward you." The proper response was—"I likewise bows."

After the luncheon Colonel Tautot and the sub-prefect led the Commission to inspect the ruined cathedral. This was a pitiful and fascinating sight. This once famous cathedral is practically a wreck. I doubt very much if it can ever be restored. We were taken into the interior and were shown how wonderful stained glass windows had been blown out. We picked up a number of the pieces of fine glass from the ground. The making of this glass is a lost art and the coloring is most beautiful. I brought home some of the glass and had it used as settings for a number of rings which I presented to friends. The sub-prefect presented me, as a relic, a bone—the front part of a forearm. This cathedral was the burying place of number of archbishops and ancient royal personages, and all these tombs were blown up.

[Illustration: Ruins at Reims. Upper and Lower Plates—The Cathedral. Middle Plate—The Archbishop's Palace.]

Adjoining the cathedral was the archbishop's palace, famous the world over, and its contents priceless. This was utterly destroyed. One of our party, in looking about the ruins, picked up a large sized key, which proved afterwards to be the key to the archbishop's residence. He was given permission by the sub-prefect to retain this, and I subsequently acquired it.

We also visited the market place and the old Notre Dame church built in 1149 by Charlemagne. This was a most beautiful church, the windows almost equalling those of the Cathedral of St. Elme at Nancy, but inferior to those in the Reims cathedral, said to have been the most beautiful in the world. In this church we saw a statue of Jeanne D'Arc, and a very fine painting of the "Ascension".

We were taken to the city hospital at Reims, which had been fired upon and almost completely destroyed by the Germans while occupied by French wounded. The range was obtained by the aviators, and then incendiary bombs were fired. These bombs set fire to the buildings with which they came in contact. We were told that hundreds of French soldiers were killed with this mode of warfare. We could hear the bombs on the Aisne front exploding while we were visiting the ruins of the hospital. We were next shown around to view the ruins of the town. Twenty-five hundred acres of houses were almost blown to pieces. We were told that thousands of bodies of men, women and children were still under the ruins. In an isolated part of these ruins, absolutely alone, we found and talked to an old French woman, still occupying her house. She had refused to move and insisted upon staying in her little home, one or two rooms having been left.

Following this visit to the ruins we were permitted to enter the trenches. A number of the party did not go to the end of the trenches. However, I concluded to see all there was to be seen, and with Deputy Damour and Mr. MacArthur, went, escorted by a staff officer detailed for that duty, to the extreme limit. We went through the trenches to within one thousand feet of the German firing lines. We could see the German sentinels through periscopes, and were told to be careful and not show our heads, which admonition was religiously obeyed.

This visit to the trenches was one of the most interesting parts of the trip, and in spite of the danger, I was very glad that I had gone and had nerve enough to go to the limit. We entered what is known as a "communication" trench, leading from the edge of the city toward the front. This was necessary, as the terrain was open and under range of the German guns. Going down through this long trench we encountered a network of others, apparently leading in all directions. Our guide knew them well and led us forward until we could, by means of a contrivance for that purpose, look over the top and see the German trenches, less than one thousand yards away. We saw few German soldiers, although occasionally we were shown where a sentinel was on duty, carefully concealed to save himself from French bullets.

The trenches in this section are irregular in width and depth. As a general thing they are not more than three feet wide at the bottom and about five feet deep. The earth is thrown up at the side next to the enemy. At short intervals along the trench holes are scooped out, into which the soldiers can go when fighting is not actually in progress. Some of these caves were quite large and had in them straw and sometimes a bench. There were cooking utensils and buckets for water. The bottoms of the trenches are generally dry, or were when we saw them. In some places they have boards on the bottom. The sides are steep and are constantly crumbling.

Some of the trenches we entered had been made by the Germans, others by the French. Those close up to the front seemed to have been dug but a short time, but farther back they were already beginning to look ancient. In some places grass was growing in the sides and here and there flowers. Some of these trenches had not been used to any extent during the summer. They are so arranged that each line is connected with the one in its front and rear by cross trenches, and it is through these that the soldiers enter and leave the actual fighting zone.

[Illustration: Key of Archbishop's Palace at Reims and Bone from Twelfth Century Tombs Opened by German Shells.]

We saw many French soldiers in the trenches. They seemed to be well fed and comfortable. At the time we were there there was no actual fighting, of course, but an occasional shot rang out across "no man's land," when sentries on either side thought they saw a chance to do execution. The ground between Reims and the battle line is a complete network of these trenches, and years will be required to level it again after the war is over.

From the advanced trench toward the German lines, at the points where we looked, there was no sign of war except an occasional shell hole and the barbed wire entanglements. The country was green and seemed to be at peace, except for the sound of the guns. It was hard to believe that we were looking across a narrow strip, on the other side of which were millions of armed men and every form of death and destruction that has been invented. Yet all this was there.

Upon coming out of the trenches we were unable to find our automobiles, the military authorities having ordered them to separate, so that they would not prove an attraction to the German aeroplanes, otherwise they would undoubtedly have been fired upon.

[Illustration: Trenches Visited by the Commission]

Following this visit to the trenches, we were taken to the famous wine cellars of Heidsick & Co., containing twelve miles of underground vaults. A few days previous to our visit a German bomb had struck the Heidsick wine cellar and destroyed forty thousand bottles of champagne, believed to be the largest number of bottles opened at any one time in the history of the world. These vaults, during the bombardments, which were numerous, are a safety place for the inhabitants and thousands take refuge in the wine cellars. We were told that there was not a single bottle of champagne missed, a testimony to the honesty of the French people. This visit to the wine cellars was intensely interesting.

While driving about the ruined town, the automobile in which I happened to be was guided by a chauffeur unfamiliar with the location, and he drove us across the German lines within three minutes ride of the German headquarters. The major in charge of the automobile squad discovered the error. We were told afterwards that we had a narrow escape from being made prisoners. While at Reims we were at all times within twenty-five minutes walk of the Germans and within ten minutes ride in the motor.

The population at Reims before the war was one hundred and eighteen thousand. It is now reduced to eighteen thousand, the other hundred thousand having become refugees, soldiers and "missing". We visited a Twelfth century cathedral which, strange to say, had not been touched. While in this cathedral we could hear the guns booming.

We returned to Chalons on the Marne the same evening, arriving there at 8:30 P.M., it being considered unsafe to remain at Reims. After our dinner at Chalons on the Marne, Dr. Mailloux timed the firing of the cannon and announced that for a space of half an hour there was one fired every two seconds.

We left Chalons on the Marne at 11:30 A.M. on the following day by railroad. The train was filled with officers returning from the front. We saw a number of Red Cross girls on this train. One had a double decoration. As we passed along we saw thousands of soldiers enroute to the front, among them one full regiment. We also saw a large detachment of German prisoners being transferred, with the letters "P. G." quite large on the back of each prisoner. "P. G." means prison garb.

In the railroad trains in both England and France appears the following:—

Be Silent!
Be watchful!
Hostile ears are listening to you!
Issued by the Minister of War.



WE arrived at Paris at three o'clock P.M., October 17th, and here received our first news of the submarine work off Nantucket. In the evening we met Antoine Borrel, deputy from Savoy, on six days' leave of absence from the Alsace Lorraine district. He entered the war a common soldier and now has the Legion of Honor on his breast.

On Wednesday, October 11th, we visited Consul Thackara and arranged about our passports.

I succeeded in securing some fine war relics and a partial line of French war posters which I brought home with me.

On Thursday, October 12th, with Mr. Weare, of the United States Steel Corporation, I called upon Consul Thackara, Charge d'Affairs Bliss, and other friends at the Embassy. We also visited the general offices of the Schneider Company.

On Friday, October 13th, a meeting of the Commissioners was held and, although our passage had been engaged on the Rochambeau of the French line, it was decided to cancel the passage and return to America by way of the American line. This was a disappointment to some of the Commissioners, although the change appeared to be inevitable. The secretary of the Commission then set about to get us safely across the Channel. We were told we would be convoyed by a British vessel, usually used in carrying soldiers. We were fed on this information for three days, telegrams were sent to the American Embassy in London and a lot of valuable time wasted. The whole scheme proved to be a myth, and we were obliged to content ourselves with getting to England the same as ordinary mortals.

On Friday, October 13th, Charge d'Affairs Bliss gave a luncheon to some of the members of the Commission, and this was an enjoyable affair.

We were informed in the evening that accommodations had been secured on the steamer "Philadelphia", of the American line, sailing October 21st, from Liverpool. Deputy Damour was greatly disappointed, as he had planned a farewell dinner at Bordeaux and great preparations had been made by the Bordeaux Chamber of Commerce for this event.

An informal supper was given Deputy Damour at the Hotel de Crillon at which some of the members of the Commission were present.

King Albert's address to the Belgians

A neighbour haughty in its strength without the slightest provocation has torn up the treaty bearing its signature and has violated the territory of our fathers because we refused to forfeit our honor. It has attacked us. Seeing its independence threatened the nation trembled and its children sprang to the frontier, valiant soldiers in a sacred cause. I have confidence in your tenacious courage. I greet you in the name of Belgium a fellow citizen who is proud of you.

Notwithstanding the war, we noticed some signs of gaiety in Paris. On Saturday evening I visited the Follies Bergere, where there was fine music and some dancing. The audience contained principally soldiers on six days' leave of absence from the front.

On Sunday, October 15th, we had a joint meeting with the American Chamber of Commerce and discussed the tariff question, credits and other things too numerous to mention.

On Sunday afternoon I visited the American Ambulance for the third time. I paid particular attention to the pathological department. I was shown a piece of spine with an imbedded bullet visible, and other specimens entirely too realistic for me to look at. I was shown an electric apparatus for locating bullets and shells, without X-ray treatment, I saw a badly wounded soldier undergoing the Carrel treatment. Dr. Sherman, chief surgeon of the Carnegie Steel Company, had spent two months in France investigating this treatment. He was most thoroughly imbued with its usefulness and enthusiastic about introducing it in the hospitals of the Steel Corporation in the United States. My own belief is that this is an advanced stage in surgery and, in fact, is an epochal discovery. It will no doubt be adopted, not only in the military hospitals of the world, but in other hospitals. A description of the treatment was furnished me by Dr. Lee, of the University of Pennsylvania, who had spent several months in Paris hospitals, and also by Mr. Bennet, who was the superintendent of the American ambulance. These descriptions follow in later pages, the subject being of vast importance to those interested in the cause of humanity.

On Monday, October 16th, we met, at the Hotel de Crilion, the Belgian Chamber of Commerce. This was a notable gathering. The president of the Chamber of Commerce, Rene Nagelmackers, made a passionate and forceful address, thanking all the United States for the aid and assistance rendered the Belgians and setting forth their needs. He said a line of vessels had already been arranged for and financed, and that it was the intention of the Belgian Government to bring to France and deposit where they could be quickly reached, machinery, tools and everything needed to immediately rehabilitate Belgium. The intention was to have these in readiness so that restoration can be promptly effected and all Belgians returned to their native soil. The president and other members of the Chamber expressed a belief that all Belgium will again be restored to its rightful owners. On materials and machinery they will want fair prices, but they will be in need of large quantities of these and the United States will, on equal terms, be given the preference. A number of other members of the Belgian Chamber of Commerce spoke, some of them in English and some in French. Victor Haardt, a member residing temporarily in Paris, suggested that the meeting was important and should be brought to the attention of the Belgian Government. When it became known that I was a personal acquaintance of King Albert, a number of the delegates suggested that I write to him and give an account of the conference and they would in turn write an official account of it. This I proceeded to do, the King's military address having been furnished me by one of the members. I gave the King in my letter full particulars of the meeting and in response received the following letter from his secretary soon after my arrival home:

[Illustration: Photograph of King Albert of Belgium, with the Royal Autograph.]

La Cambre, Belgium, October 29th, 1916.
Office of the Secretary to the King and Queen.

Mr. J. G. Butler, Jr. Youngstown, Ohio.

Dear Sir:—

I was particularly pleased to read to his Majesty your good letter, and to receive the pamphlet.

I am charged by the King to thank you for the sentiments which you have expressed and for your sympathy for Belgium.

Our Sovereign wishes you to know that he recalls with pleasure the meeting with the Directors of the American Iron and Steel Institute at Brussels.

I beg you to accept, dear sir, the assurance of my highest regards,

J. INGENBLECK, Secretary.

I spent a good part of the following day in buying war relics, many of them made by the soldiers in the trenches out of such material as exploded shells, buttons from the uniforms of dead soldiers, etc. I purchased some unique postal cards, painted by hand in the trenches by soldiers who were artists. Other relics consisted of hat pins, napkin rings, bracelets and finger rings, all made as before stated, from war material.

A copy of an English publication was brought to my attention during the Belgian conference, and I was struck by a paragraph which is quoted:—


What Germany is Doing now is Submarining the Monroe Doctrine and that is Submarining America.

In this connection there was some discussion and I was surprised to learn that the French, even those who are at the head of things, have a very hazy idea of what the Monroe Doctrine is. I explained to them that it was a statement made in a message to Congress by President Monroe in 1823, in which he laid down in a few words the principle that America, because of her history and the form of government established in the western world, was not a proper place for the exploitation of despotic governments, and that any attempt on the part of European nations to gain a foothold or to extend their territorial interests on the American continent would be regarded as an act unfriendly to the United States. I explained that this statement was never questioned and had become an accepted principle. The explanation seemed to please the French and Belgians to whom it was translated, and they apparently approve of the idea.

Coming back to America, by the way, I found that there was no occasion to be surprised at lack of understanding of the Monroe Doctrine abroad, as few of us understand just what it is at home.

On October 17th, I visited the American Embassy and met there, among others, Captain Eugene Rosetti, a captain in the Foreign Legion. This Legion was recruited from friends of France who were not Frenchmen, but largely Americans. When the war broke out this body was thirty-six thousand strong, and on the date I talked with Captain Rosetti there were but thirteen hundred survivors. The Foreign Legion was largely in evidence at the early part of the war and stories of its bravery were heard everywhere.

In the evening Dr. Veditz made an address before the Commissioners, telling of the work he was engaged in and what he had accomplished.

On October 18th, the Commission gave a luncheon to Wilbur J. Carr, Consul in Europe with headquarters in Washington. Some very plain talk was in evidence as to the inefficiency of some of the American consuls. Consul Carr delivered a very forceful address. He had been in the consular service for nearly a quarter of a century and is working, with much success, to better the service.



ON this date, October 18th, the commission left Paris for Havre at 4:50 P.M., its destination being London, by way of Southampton. We boarded the boat at Havre after a very rigid inspection of passports, baggage, etc. It was a rough night and many were seasick. The boat was crowded to repletion and the trip was a very uncomfortable experience. We had been escorted from Paris to Havre by Captain Sayles, of the American Embassy. This was one of the many courtesies shown us by the American Embassy in Paris under the direction of Robert Bliss, Charge d'Affaires, in the absence of Ambassador Sharp. I had a very interesting talk with Captain Sayles. His first question came out quickly and rather abruptly. "What most impressed you on your trip?" I replied, without hesitation: "The spirit of France and the morale of the French soldier and the French people. All France is thinking and working and trying to do what they can to help save France." Captain Sayles said it was a tradition that when events required it, France always rose to the occasion and passed the crisis successfully. He said also that the battle of the Marne, as has been said previously by many others, settled the war. That the Kaiser and the Prussian militants knew then they were beaten and have been trying for a year and a half to find a way out. There is no doubt in the opinion of Captain Sayles, that the German people are deceived and still think that Germany will win the war. They are fed upon false information.

In this connection I had a talk with Allyn B. Carrick, an American who had spent several months in Germany during the past year and had recently returned from there. He was an American and understood German, and was a good listener. He said the people in Germany are talking among themselves, criticising the government, especially the Kaiser and the Crown Prince, and he felt that some day something would happen which would bring trouble. He said there was great distress all over Germany. Mr. Carrick got his information by keeping his ears open in cafes, railroad stations, hotels and passenger trains.

When the conflict is over it is my judgment that international law will be overhauled and some of the German methods of war on innocent women and children will be eliminated, such as the shelling of non-combatants and bomb-throwing. Terrorism in ghastly forms is now a part of the German method of fighting the enemy.

The Kaiser has for many years considered himself a Charlemagne, Frederick the Great and Napoleon the First rolled into one. Results are developing which put him in the class of Napoleon the Third, or even below that monarch in ability.

We arrived at Southampton on Thursday, October 19th, at 9 A.M. There was much red tape in evidence and many questions asked the commissioners. We were warned that no letters could be carried for delivery, and that a violation of this order would result in arrest of anyone guilty.

After some little delay and much needed assistance from friends of America, our baggage was registered and incidentally "greased" through to London. We arrived in London at 1 P.M. Considerable evidence was here apparent of the recent visit of the Zeppelins. One had been captured and partially destroyed, and I was fortunate in securing some pieces as relics. I met here Dr. Sherman, who has been in close touch with and assisted Alexander Carrel with reference to the Carrel technique, the recent antiseptic discovered for wounds and injuries, used so successfully for the prevention of blood poisoning. The fluid is a solution of bleaching lime with bi-carbonate of soda, filtered or poured through the wounds. Thousands of lives have been saved by this discovery. The method has been adopted by the Italian, French and Belgian governments, and is being considered by the English government.

On the day following our arrival in London, I called upon Consul General Skinner and found him busy at work. Inquiries resulted in receiving a most excellent account of his stewardship. He is very much alive to American interests.

I also met H. W. Thornton, formerly a high official in the Pennsylvania Railroad system, but now in charge of the Great Eastern Railroad in England. He is an important personage, and, from information obtained, has made good. He is one of the counsellors in close touch with the war department.

While in London we were at the Savoy hotel. I was struck by a notice posted on the bedroom-door.

Important notice.

Visitors occupying rooms are now held responsible by the Authorities for the proper control of the lights in the rooms they occupy.

It is absolutely necessary that they should see that the blinds and curtains of the rooms they occupy are closely drawn so that no light can leak through.

It is imperative also to switch off all lights before attempting to open or close a window, if this necessitates drawing the blinds.

These regulations apply to all rooms occupied, including bathrooms.

[Illustration: French Marines Operating 75-mm Gun on Shipboard.]

I attended the Hippodrome in London, walking through the darkness escorted by a friend. The show was pretty much with reference to the war. I was attracted by the notice at the bottom of the program, which is copied below.

Arrangements have been made that warning of a threatened air raid will be communicated by the Military Authorities to this theatre.

On receipt of any such warning the audience will be informed, with a view to enable persons who may wish to proceed home, to do so.

The warning will be communicated, so far as possible, at least 20 minutes before any actual attack can take place. There will, therefore, be no cause for alarm or undue haste.

Those who decide to leave are warned not to loiter about the streets, and if bombardment or gunfire commences before they reach home, they should at once take cover.

By order of The Commissioner of Police of the Metropolis.

New Scotland Yard, S. W.

The anniversary of Trafalgar Day was celebrated while we were in London. This was one of the most decisive battles in the history of the world. As an English view of the battle of Trafalgar I copy below the editorial from the Daily-Graphic, and might add, in my own words, that but for the British navy our sea-coast cities, both on the Atlantic and Pacific, might easily have been wiped out before this time.


To-day is the anniversary of one of the most decisive battles in the history of the world. Our minds rest naturally enough on Waterloo as the battle which finally destroyed Napoleon's power in 1815, to the great relief of France, as well as of all the rest of Europe. But it was the battle of Trafalgar, ten years previously, which secured to Great Britain the command of the sea and so prepared the way for Napoleon's downfall. The same factors that operated a century ago are operating today. There has been no Trafalgar to wipe the enemy's ships off the sea, but our sea supremacy was so well secured before the war began that the enemy has only once ventured to challenge it, with disastrous results to himself off the Jutland coast. The effect of British sea supremacy has been felt from the first day of the war. We were able by our intervention at once to prevent Germany from carrying out her scheme of a naval descent on the French coast. The same sea-power has since enabled us to transport in safety armies probably aggregating over two million men to France, the Dardanelles, Egypt, Mesopotamia, Salonica, the Cameroons and German East Africa. The larger portion of these armies has naturally been drawn from the United Kingdom, but large contingents have come from Canada, Australia, India, South Africa and the West Indies. None of these movements of troops would have been possible unless we had secured the command of the sea. In addition, our sea supremacy has enabled us to maintain our commerce with the whole of the world, while blocking German commerce wherever we chose to use our power. The British Navy is the force which has determined the final defeat of Germany, and so long as we maintain that force at adequate strength we can face without flinching any danger that may threaten us from any part of the world.

Saturday, October 21st, was the day of sailing from Liverpool. We left London at 10:20 A.M. on the London & Northwestern Railroad for Liverpool and arrived at the latter place at 2:30 P.M. We boarded the steamer Philadelphia, of the American line, and noticed on the side of the boat an immense American flag painted in colors, as well as the words "American Line". There was also a row of electric lights, visible several miles distant, surrounding the flag and the name of the boat. There were five lights on each side of the boat and each light had five incandescent bulbs, making fifty lights in all. The flag painted on the side of the steamer was 8 x 15 feet.

The Philadelphia left the dock at Liverpool at 4 P.M. on a rough sea. Mr. E. A. Warren, a member of the Commission, stopped over a day in Manchester and was in close communication with friends in that city. Manchester has a population of half a million people. It is the center of the cotton manufacture of the world. Mr. Warren is a manufacturer of textile machinery and represented the textile industry on the Commission. He reported that all the manufacturers of textile machinery in England are running on war munitions. The entire steel industry in England is under the control of the government, and the sale of steel for any purpose cannot be made without governmental consent. Mr. Warren reported also, as coming from friends, that England was at that time growing uneasy over the fact that the United States government requested that British war vessels keep away from our coast and then allowed the U-boat 53 to land at Newport and obtain information in regard to the sailing of vessels, which it then proceeded to torpedo. This occurred about the time of the blowing up of vessels off Nantucket.

The Manchester stock exchange has a membership of ten thousand and is open every day except Sunday. There are no auction sales, no excitement or loud talk, no gesticulating, as is the case in New York, particularly on the curb. The business is all done in a quiet, conversational tone. Cotton is the principal commodity traded in.

A feeling is growing in England that the United States should have entered the war, which the English believe they are fighting for the cause of civilization and for the preservation of the liberty of the United States as well as of England. The feeling is also somewhat prevalent that the United States is only interested so far as making money is concerned. This feeling was apparently very bitter.

England today is an armed camp. From end to end of the country there is hardly a man, woman or half-grown child who is not working, making ammunition, guarding the coast, doing police duty, watching for Zeppelins, making uniforms or shoes, or moving provisions or supplies of all kinds for an army of five million men, with the British navy thrown in. There are two thousand munition factories in England and more under construction. I was told of one plant being built in units extending for eight miles. These munition factories employ one million men and women. There are other works being built to make aeroplanes, cannons, machine guns and hand grenades. All this since the war opened. Great Britain has mobilized the ship yards and they are working overtime to build vessels. This has more than offset the loss of vessels destroyed by the Germans.

America is doing a great deal in the way of Red Cross and relief work, but it is a mere bagatelle compared with the activities of England in this direction. The women of England are as fully awake as are the women of France. Thousands are at work in hospitals and caring for the refugees. Girls are at work making horse-shoes for the army horses. These girls are cultivated, aristocratic women, members of golf and hockey clubs. Others are working on farms, handling teams, pitching hay, or driving cattle to market. Thousands of women are occupied as chauffeurs at the various fronts. Hundreds of English women are living through all kinds of weather in tents just behind the firing lines, acting as stretcher bearers and driving ambulances.

[Illustration: Nancy—Place Stanislas]

While in London I met a number of old friends, many of them incidentally connected with the government and very much alive to the situation. The concensus of opinion of these friends is that failure of the Allies to win the war means the death-warrant of France and the British Empire; that there is no middle course; that the war will be fought to a finish and the Allies will be victorious; that the Kaiser and the Prussian military system will be annihilated, the German people will arise, and the Republic of Germany will be the result.

Among other things spoken of there was the incident of Dewey at Manila and the near clash over Samoa. It will be remembered that Dewey fired a shot across the bows of a German vessel. To people in London the Venezuelan embroglio proved that the Kaiser had in mind smashing the Monroe Doctrine. Germany yielded to us in both cases. President Cleveland was at the helm when the Venezuelan controversy came and the immortal McKinley was in the chair when Manila was taken. Cleveland, Harrison and McKinley all stood up for our rights and Germany backed clear down, facts which the English have not overlooked.



DURING Sunday following our sailing we passed through the Irish Sea, which was very rough. The davits were taken down and the passengers ordered below. On Monday the sea was somewhat calmer. During the day I met Dr. Lee, who had been in the service of the American Ambulance for a year and a half. He is quite familiar with and believes in the Carrel treatment. He said that nearly two million British soldiers had been innoculated against typhoid fever and only twenty-five had died out of this vast number during a period of eighteen months.

On Tuesday, October 24th, we encountered another very rough sea. Old ocean travelers said it was the roughest day they had ever experienced in crossing the ocean. I was loath to admit seasickness, but when I found the dining room vacant and everyone on board, including some of the crew, unable to be about, I was forced to recognize myself among the number so affected. On this day the ocean was a sight to behold. I could see the dashing waves break high, not on a rock-bound coast, but on top of the ship, inundating my cabin. The waves were at times fully fifty feet high; stanchions on deck were crushed and the passengers were ordered to their cabins.

Thursday, October 26th, found the ocean calm and the sun shining. On this date I was expected in St. Louis at the semi-annual meeting of the American Iron & Steel Institute, and was booked for an address. All I could do was to send a Marconigram: "Gary, American Steel Institute, St. Louis: Absence regretted. Kind wishes for all members."

Friday, October 27th, was a bright, clear morning and the boat was making good time, with prospects of landing early Sunday morning. With the aid of Mr. Roche I completed the translation of the Le Creusot welfare book.

I had the pleasure of meeting on the boat Mr. H. P. Davison, a member of the firm of J. P. Morgan & Co. He is a plain-spoken gentleman with a strong personality. He is one of the leading partners in the firm of J. P. Morgan & Co. and talks and thinks in millions.

On the boat I talked with an Englishman who saw the last Zeppelin come down near London. He said the English aviators have solved the problem of destroying Zeppelins. The Zeppelin contains a large amount of liquid explosives and firing with incendiary bombs it takes but a few minutes to destroy the huge air vessel.

We reached the dock in New York on Saturday evening and remained on board over night. Early Sunday morning the quarantine officer appeared. The good old Philadelphia docked at 9 A.M. and after the inspection of baggage, which was more rigid than usual, the journey was over. We were met on the boat by numerous reporters. I gave an interview of which the following is a copy:—


"Kitchener Right Predicting Three-Year Conflict."

That the Entente Allies, by the greatness and efficiency of their military preparations and by their wonderful financial strength, will push the European war to a complete victory regardless of the cost in life and treasure, is the opinion expressed by Joseph G. Butler, President of the American Pig Iron Association, on his arrival here today on board the steamship Philadelphia' of the American line, from Liverpool.

Mr. Butler was a member of the American Industrial Commission which went abroad late in August to study economic conditions in France, and hence had excellent opportunities to see the great military preparations being made by France. He was one out of the twelve members of the commission who returned today by the Philadelphia.

A Vast Military Camp

"All France is a vast military camp," he said, "and her people from the President down are deadly in earnest and determined to continue their victories regardless of the cost in life and treasure. England is fully as much in earnest as France and has buckled down to the task of winning the fight for civilization, as Mr. Lloyd George phrased it in an interview I had with him in Paris.

"I firmly believe that the Allies will win. I feel certain that the Kaiser and the Prussian military authorities realize that they have lost and are casting about for some means of bringing the war to a close, hoping that better terms can be obtained now than later on. The German people must sooner or later learn the real condition of affairs, and then I believe they will make themselves heard in no uncertain manner.

Will Never Let Up

"The battle of the Marne settled the controversy in favor of France and her allies," he continued. "Earl Kitchener predicted a three-year war, and I believe he did not underestimate it.

"The Allies will never let up until they have won a complete and final victory.

"I am more convinced of this now than I have been on the ground and learned first hand not only of their complete equipment of men and munitions, but also of their wonderful financial strength. We in America know altogether too little of the astonishing richness of both England and France, and the sooner we wake up to our opportunities and encourage in every way the increasing of our trade with them the better off we will be."

I reached home early Monday morning glad to be again in my native town. Before landing I had written an account of the French steel industry in war-time and had obtained permission from Mr. Nichols, as Chairman, to make an advance publication of this document in the Iron Age and the Iron Trade Review. I had in mind that something of this kind would be expected by my fellow steel manufacturers, and if we waited until the full report of the Commission was made, the information would be stale. This article appeared in many of the trade journals and is republished in the chapter following.



THE individual report on the condition of the iron and steel industries in France, referred to in the proceeding chapter, together with the comments of The Iron Age thereon, were as follows: Joseph G. Butler, Jr., Youngstown, Ohio, who represented the steel trade of the country on the American Industrial Commission to France, arrived in New York on the return journey of the commission on Oct. 29. While the general report of the commission, which went out under the auspices of the American Manufacturers' Export Association, will not be published until late in the year, The Iron Age is able to give its readers below Mr. Butler's report of his investigations into the war status of the iron and steel industry of France.

W. W. Nichols,

Chairman American Industrial Commission to France.

My dear Sir:—

In accordance with your request, I beg to submit the following report, which is the result of observations and information obtained, regarding the particular industry represented by me.

Quite unfortunately, there were only a few visits to steel plants of any importance and the information gained is rather superficial. I noticed a dearth of labor-saving devices, and quite prominently the absence of safety appliances. I also observed that notices to the employees calling attention to probable dangers were not as plentiful as in any model plant in the United States. It is quite probable that there are many plants in France that are more up-to-date than those we visited.

I have information in regard to the condition of the iron and steel business in France at the outbreak of the war, but we are only concerned with its present condition and its probable condition when the war is ended.

The acquisition by Germany at the close of the so-called Franco-Prussian war resulted, as in well known, in Germany taking over the tremendous fields of iron ore and coal located in Alsace-Lorraine. It is my belief that this absorption is largely responsible for the prosperous condition of the iron and steel business in Germany and its being in second place in the world's production. I am assured by men prominent in the iron and steel trade in France, and by others connected with the government, that the war will not end until these valuable mineral deposits have been restored to France. It is remarkable that with this serious handicap, France has been able to accomplish so much in the way of steel supplies for its munition plants and other plants making war material accessories.

From my observation, nearly all the iron and steel now produced in France is being turned into war material and materials required for other purposes have been furnished in a minimum and scanty way. In other words, the whole of the iron and steel interests in France have been mobilized by the French Government.

The last report I have seen on steel and iron production in France is dated May, 1915, but I am told on good authority that since that date the production has doubled.

With the reacquisition of the Alsace-Lorraine iron and coal deposits and possibly the acquirement of other fields which our French friends seem to have in mind there will still be a shortage of coal. However, it is expected that after the war closes, France will necessarily be obliged to export a good portion of its production of iron and steel, by reason of the increased productive capacity of its iron and steel plants.

Incidentally I might mention that, when we were in Marseilles my attention was called by the Chamber of Commerce to the fact that France would be in a condition to export large quantities of iron ore from Algeria to the United States, and if this project could be worked out and return cargoes of American coal brought to France it would be very desirable, meeting the shortage of coal, which is inevitable. The analysis of this Algerian ore shows the quality to be such as would produce high-grade steel materials. A detailed analysis will be furnished to any one who may be interested.

It is interesting to note that in the departments of Calvados, Manche and Orne, there are rich deposits of iron ore yielding in some cases 45 to 50 per cent metallic iron. These deposits before the war were leased by the Thyssen group of German steel manufacturers, but are now in the hands of the French sequestrators. I understand that quantities of this ore also were in great demand, and frequently shipped to the iron works of South Wales.

I examined the steel plant making steel by the electrical process, but the examination was very brief. I have assurance, however, that the manufacture of steel by electricity in France has been very successful not only mechanically but financially and is sure to grow. There seems to be a large area in the eastern part of France where water-power is available, and I think that many new plants, and much activity will prevail in this particular region, when affairs again become settled. The use of water-power will overcome to a large extent the shortage of coal.

I think that when the war ends, the imports to France from the United States of iron and steel will be confined to special forms and that France will be able to compete not only with the United States, but also with other countries in the matter of exports of general iron and steel products.

With the port improvements contemplated at Bordeaux and Marseilles, world-wide markets will be opened for France. The contemplated improvements at both these places will, no doubt, be fully cared for in other special reports, or perhaps in the general body of the report which the commission may issue. The canal at Marseilles should receive special mention in the general report.

The tariff question in France is in about the same condition as in the United States, with the exception that in France custom duties are handled quickly and settled expeditiously by the government. Duties may be raised or lowered over night to meet contingencies.

The labor in French iron and steel plants is paid very much less than in the United States; in many instances one-half and even less. There are very few disturbances, and dictatorial labor unions such as we have in the United States are unknown in France.

A large number of women are employed in France doing men's work, which keeps wages at a lower level than would otherwise be possible. All the members of the commission have seen in their travels women doing men's work, and performing manual labor which in our country would not be thought of for a moment. Employment of women in steel and munition plants has, of course, increased the number of women workers since the war commenced. This, I think, is largely brought about by the patriotic feeling which prevails all over France. "Working for France" is a slogan rooted and imbedded in the minds of the people, whether they are soldiers, or engaged in any other occupation which may tend to end the war and save France.

Cooperation in France among all manufacturers of iron and steel and in fact all other industrial works, is marvelous, and could well be imitated in our own country. The various special branches of metal trades have both local and national syndicate organizations for the discussion of their trade problems, and means of voicing the particular needs of their trade, on which a majority sentiment has been expressed. These chamber syndicates are in turn combined into a National Union. These national unions are members of the Comite des Forges de France, which is the cap stone of the trade organizations of the steel and iron industries. The most striking fact to an American regarding the personnel of the governing board and general committee of the Comite des Forges de France is that a considerable number of its members are in one or the other of the legislative bodies, and practically hold positions at the head of the Government Committees, organized to look after the very business in which they are engaged.

In spite of the fact that at the beginning of trench warfare, France had lost behind the German line 80 per cent of her normal pig-iron production, and 70 per cent of her steel production, it has been possible by the utilization of lower grade ore in other districts of France, and which were not exploited to any extent previously, to increase the steel production of the country 100 per cent over that of last year. The interesting fact regarding this is that of the production which has been cut off the larger part in pig iron is of so-called Thomas iron (non-Bessemer), and in the case of steel, mostly "Martin" or acid open hearth. Neither of these products enters to any considerable extent into the manufacture of projectiles. The plants in the center and southern part of France were already producing the special qualities of steel required for artillery use, hence the amount of special quality steel brought in from foreign countries, in both the raw and semi-manufactured state, was an immediate necessity for the country at outbreak of hostilities. It is also noticeable, and based on information obtained from leading steel manufacturers, that many idle and in some cases abandoned plants have been rehabilitated and utilized as far as possible. As a matter of fact, I am told that there is not a single idle plant of any kind formerly engaged in the manufacture of fabrication of steel that is not now in full operation, either in its original form or by being transformed into a munitions plant.

It is only too evident that the present pre-occupation of steel manufacturers is to bend every effort to assist in the final military victory of the Allies. However, I met steel manufacturers, conversing with them freely, and their mental attitude is that when the military victory has been achieved and France has again entered into possession of her own, they are determined to succeed in producing a close union with the British producers and thus prevent a rapid return of German industrial prosperity. With this fact in mind, it seems clear to me that the United States will have to make up its mind in which field it will choose to work. It certainly will be impossible to continue to hold a position of theoretical neutrality.

Welfare work in Le Creusot is in a high state of efficiency. Comfortable modern dwellings are furnished the employees at low rental. Hospital facilities are of the best and everything is done to bring the workman in close and harmonious relations with his employer.

It has been suggested that I embody in this report something with reference to the mines in France, but as the data concerning them has been printed in public documents of the French Minister of Mines, I will omit this detail with the single word that these reports include minerals of all kinds.

I am indebted to John Weare, representative of the United States Steel Products Company in France, for valuable information in the preparation of this brief report.


In the early part of December I was requested by the Financial editor of the New York Times to give my views on the present outlook and more particularly with reference to the condition of the American Iron and Steel industry, brought about by the war. This letter to Mr. Phillips is copied.

December 20th, 1916.

Mr. Osmund Phillips, New York, N. Y.

My dear Mr. Phillips:—

I have before me your circular letter of the 8th instant and your kind favor of recent date.

In reply to your question—What is the outlook for business in the early months of 1917?

The outlook is good. Our mills and plants for several months could not nil the domestic orders even if the war orders were entirely withdrawn. I am told that all the recent orders placed are firm and are to be filled regardless of the ending of the war.

Will the end of the European war mark the end of the present period of prosperity?

This is a broad and doubtful question. I do not think the end of the war will end the present period of prosperity. There will be a temporary halt. I might add in this connection, that in my judgment the last overture from the Kaiser may result in the cessation of the war, but I believe this period to be quite a distance off. There are three parties in Germany. First, the Kaiser and the Prussian Military circle, who have been in charge and have carried their own way up to very nearly the present time. Second, there are the people of Germany who are the common people, the good substantial people, the majority of whom have been kept in ignorance of the real beginning of the war and the cause for its continuing. These people are commencing to get information and as time goes on will be in full possession of the facts. Third, the business men of Germany. There are no better nor more substantial business men any place in the world than those in Germany; these men are really responsible for the building up of Germany and it is my opinion that these people are now responsible for the pressure that is undoubtedly being brought on the Kaiser and the military party for the settlement of the war. I believe that this pressure will continue until a settlement is made. These business men recognize that the longer the settlement is put off the harder it will be for Germany.

In your opinion, what proportion of the country's total trade, both foreign and domestic, during the past year, was due to the war?

I think about one-half of the trade of the country is due greatly, directly and indirectly to the war.

Do you think that labor demands have exceeded labor's fair share of the increase in profits?

I do not think labor demands have exceeded labor's fair share. The high cost of living fully offsets the greater wages paid.

Do you think present wage rates can be maintained?

I do not think that present wages can be maintained indefinitely. There will undoubtedly be a reaction with a certain reduction in the cost of living and labor will have to share in the reduction.

What do you think of the important legislation passed in 1916 affecting business, including the eight hour day, increase in income tax, the shipping bill, retaliation against foreign trade interference, etc.?

The eight hour a day law was an abnormal affair undoubtedly forced through for political purposes, and never should have been passed and should be promptly repealed.

The increase in the income tax is all right.

The shipping bill will be valuable if the right kind of men are put on the Commission. Some of these under consideration are wholly incapable.

I believe this answers all your questions.

Very truly yours,


When the special report I had prepared and published reached France I was favored with a number of letters from prominent people in that country, containing comments on the same. There were probably one hundred of these letters, from among which I have selected the following as of sufficient interest, either because of their comments or the prominence of the writers, to make them worthy of reproduction here:

French Republic.

Mr. J. G. Butler, Jr., Youngstown, O.

Dear Sir:—

I thank you for the interesting data which you kindly sent me on the development of the French Steel Industry during the war.

My compatriots cannot be otherwise than sensible of the praise which you have given them.

They will find in your report an authorized opinion of the efforts which they have made to make secure the National defense.

Yours very truly,
Minister of Commerce and Industry.

Consulate-General of the United States of America.
1, Rue Des Italians
(28, Boulevard Des Italiens)

Paris, December 6, 1916. Joseph G. Butler, Jr., Esquire, Youngstown, Ohio, United States of America. My dear Mr. Butler:—

I am in receipt of your good favor of November 9, 1916, enclosing a reprint of your report on the French Steel Industry, for which you have my best thanks. I have read it with a great deal of interest and must congratulate you upon getting a great many solid facts into a very small compass. In my opinion you have covered the situation very intelligently and the information you give ought to be of great value to our manufacturers in the United States.

I cannot tell you how glad I was to see you over here and I only wish that more of our people would come abroad to study conditions at first hand.

I have also received a letter from your friend, Mr. Warren, and from Mr. Douglass saying all sorts of nice things about me which, I hope, were merited.

Very sincerely yours,


Republican Committee of Commerce,
Industry and Agriculture.

Paris, November 30th, 1916.

Mr. J. G. Butler, Jr., Member of the Industrial Commission of France. Youngstown, Ohio.

Dear Sir:—

I acknowledge receipt of the interesting report that you have made on your return from France, and I trust that this voyage will have allowed you to learn to appreciate our fine country, and that the results of your visit will be good and fruitful for the exchange of our products with North America.

You need not thank us for the reception that we have given to the American delegation in France. It was our duty to receive heartily our American friends; it was for us a cherished duty to tighten again the bonds of cordiality which exist between the two countries.

Personally I myself have been very glad to be introduced to you.

Yours Very truly,

Senateur de la Seine.

Meurthe & Moselle,
Office of the Prefect.
Nancy, France, November 28th, 1916.

Dear Sir:—

I have read with the greatest interest the interview which you gave upon your landing in America to the American newspapers.

I feel very much impressed by your own remembrance and I myself feel honored, as a French citizen, by your sympathy for my country.

The poor city of Nancy has suffered since your visit. We buried yesterday, the victims of the Friday bombardment. Big shells have been thrown on the city. One fell right in the center, in this vicinity, in a populous street, many women and children have been killed, a mother and her two little girls—what a dreary sight is war, the way of the war inaugurated by the Germans, for it is the shame of all humanity. We have inhumed our poor victims, washed the blood that reddened pavements, put in order the rubbish of the houses and have come back again to our daily work.

Yours very truly,

MIRMAN, Prefect.

To J. G. Butler, Jr.

Lyon, Le 28 November 1916.

Consulat Imperial de Russie a Lyon

Mr. Joseph G. Butler, Jr. Youngstown, Ohio. United States.

Dear Sir:—

I am pleased to acknowledge receipt of your favour of the 9 November, and of the copy of your report respecting the French Steel Industry. I thank you for same.

I have read your report with high interest, on various questions referred to, and particularly the Comite des Forges de France, and the works of Messrs. Schneider & Co. at Le Creusot.

I should be happy if a further good opportunity could afford me the pleasure of meeting you again, and I remain, dear sir,

Very truly yours,


Des Deputes
Commission du Budget.

Paris, le November 30th, 1916.

Mr. Joseph G. Butler, Jr. Youngstown, Ohio, U. S. A.

My dear Mr. Butler:—

I duly received your favor of Oct. 31st, and of Nov. 10th, and also the documents which you kindly sent me. I have read them with greatest interest.

Of course, I have at once communicated your report in French to the Chambers of Commerce and I was pleased to place such a useful and well established document at their disposal.

I trust to hear from you soon, and with very kind regards.

I beg to remain,
Cordially yours,

Depute de Lands.

Bordeaux the 29th November, 1916.

Dear Mr. Butler:—

I beg to tender you my very best thanks for the copy of your report on French Steel Industry in war time you so kindly sent me.

I learned a lot by reading it, and it is comforting to know that on the other side of the Atlantic, we have friends not sparing their time and their energy, for helping us through the tremendous struggle we are fighting.

Your flag is made of the same colors as our flag, both are the same symbol of human rights and Liberty.

Yours very truly,


Joseph G. Butler, Jr., Esq.,
Member of the American Commission to France,
Youngstown, Ohio, U. S. A.

11 Ironmonger Lane
London 31st January, 1917.

J. G. Butler, Jr., Esq.,
Youngstown, O.

My dear Mr. Butler:—

I have received your lines of the 29th ultimo, and your most charming verses which accompanied them; also your report on the French Steel Industry, which I read with very much interest.

The people on your side do things in a very thorough manner. For instance, I do not think that we have sent a deputation to consider the state of trade in France, but numerous committees, dealing with various important trades of the country, are conferring in regard to "trade after the war conditions"—I hope with advantage.

I trust that out of all the trials of war time there will emerge a period when the angel of co-operation with healing in his wings will again have a chance of being heard.

My wife sends you her kindest regards, as I do also. I have most pleasant memories of my visits to the United States and of the hospitalities which you and your hospitable brethren invariably extended to me.

Believe me, Yours sincerely,

Lyon, Nov. 23rd, 1916.

Ministere de la Guerre Inspections Generales 5e Arrondissement Lyon

9, Rue President Carnot

My dear Sir:—

I beg to thank you sincerely for that reprint of your report on the French Steel Industry, which I have read through with great pleasure and most interest.

Besides, I am glad to take such an opportunity to remember the time we spent together so agreeably in Lyons, and remain, dear sir,

Yours very truly,


Paris, Dec. 27th, 1916.

Mr. J. G. Butler,
Youngstown, O., U. S. A.

Dear Sir:—

I have the honor to acknowledge receipt of your letters of November 6th and 9th, in which you send to me the text of the report of your trip in France and an interview that you have granted to a representative of a newspaper before landing.

I thank you very kindly for this information and I wish to testify to the pleasure afforded me by the good impression which you brought back of your trip. I beg you to be so kind as to excuse me for delaying so long in answering your letter—a delay caused by the work that we give to the intensive effort toward the production of war material.

As you have made the request of me, I shall tell you very frankly the few observations which have been suggested to my by the reading of your report.

First of all you have noted the lack of any safety apparatus in the factories and the lack of placards by means of which, in the United States, the attention of the laborer is called to the probable dangers of his profession. The last part of the observation is particularly well founded, but you must not forget that working conditions in France are quite different from those existing in the United States. In our country, the metal workers are taught more slowly; as a rule they start their apprenticeship earlier and their professional education wards them against the dangers of the plant. As to the safety apparatus, perhaps they have been neglected in some workshops erected during the war, but they are required by law and always installed in times of peace.

I can tell you that as far as the Schneider's establishments are concerned, special safety regulations were established twenty years ago, with such care that they are actually in use almost without modifications up to the present time.

I have had looked up, some records on the fatal accidents in the French and in the American metallurgical factories. I notice that, according to the report of conditions of employment in the Iron and Steel Industry in the United States, the percentage of fatal accidents in America was 1.86 for 1000 laborers in 1909 and 1910, while in France it was only 0.6 for 1000 laborers.

The comparison of these figures will show you the accuracy of what I have just indicated to you. As to wages it is certain that the French wages have nothing in common with the American prices, but the cost of living is much less.

One cannot therefore compare the figures according to the report which gives the exchange between the monetary units of the two countries.

Finally, in the chapter "Collaboration between the Manufacturers" it is shown that the production of which the French industry has been deprived, consisted entirely of Thomas, or Basic (Bessemer) Steel and acid Open Hearth Steel.

In reality the East and North departments of France, which have been invaded, were producing chiefly Basic Bessemer pig iron and steel. Open Hearth, Acid and Basic steel figured only as a relatively small tonnage.

As you take an interest in the social question, I thought I was doing right in having addressed to you, by the same mail, a copy of our pamphlet on social economy.

I trust that the materials which you will find in it will allow you to complete the data that you have been able to gather in the course of your trip.

Yours very truly,


Paris, December 2nd, 1916.

Mr. J. G. Butler, Jr.,
Youngstown, O.

Dear Sir:—

I have had the honor to receive your letter of November 9th and was very much pleased to note your very interesting report on the French Steel Industry.

I thank you for sending this document which I immediately communicated to our several metallurgical departments concerned.

I thank you, too, for the kind mention you make of our relations during your stay in France and beg you to believe dear sir, in the assurance of my best regards.

Yours very truly,


Arles-sur-Rhone, Dec. 10th, 1916.

Mr. J. G. Butler, Jr.,
Youngstown, Ohio.

Dear Sir:—

I have received with your favor of the 19th of last November, the copy of the report which you drew up following your trip to France about the steel business in France during the war.

I have had it translated, for, as I very much regret to be obliged to tell you, I do not know the English language, which deprived me of the extreme pleasure of conversing directly with you and obliged me to remain your silent neighbor, when I had the privilege of being near you.

The reading of your report has interested me very keenly and informed us in France of many things about France.

You have been so kind as to add a very elegant piece of poetry about our two flags comprising the same colors that the sun blends in its radiant light, but which none the less preserve their symbolical import. May they continue to float thus together as formerly for the glory of our two nations, which are actuated by a common impulse, though differing in expression.

I trust your visit to France at this unfortunate time through which we are living, will have a happy effect upon the continuance of the good relations between our two countries.

Thanking you deeply for your considerate attention, I beg to extend to you and the other members of your Commission the expression of my sincere regards, believe me, sir,

Yours very truly,

Architecte des Monuments Historiques.

French Embassy.

Washington, D. C., Feb. 21, 1917.

I offer you, my dear Colonel, my best thanks for the most interesting account you kindly sent me of your experience in France and of the sentiments inspired to you by your stay among my compatriots.

Sincerely yours,


Louis Nicolle
17, Avenue Bosquet

December, 1916.

My dear Sir:—

I am much obliged to you for the reprint of your report you kindly sent me.

I have read through it with the greatest interest, and although I am a textile manufacturer, I found some very interesting suggestions in it, and at the same time compliments to my country of which I am very proud.

I hope some further opportunity may bring us into contact again and in the meantime, I remain,

Yours very sincerely,


Reims, December 15th, 1916.

Dear Mr. Butler:—

I thank you for your very interesting communication on the Steel Industry in France and on its future. I am quite of the same opinion with you and I congratulate you for what you have brought to us.

I cherish the best remembrance of the visit to Reims of the American Commission and I hope to have the pleasure of meeting you again.

I forwarded your kind regards to Mr. Representative Damour, who begged me to send you his regards.

Ever at your service for all that could be service to you, I beg you to accept, dear Mr. Butler, the expression of my sympathy and of my most devoted friendship.

Sub-prefect, Reims.

Paris, Dec. 23rd, 1916.

Mr. J. G. Butler, Jr.,
Youngstown, O.

Dear Sir:—

I duly received your letter of November 9th, in which you were so kind as to enclose a copy of the report on the French Steel Industry which you made out following the trip which the American Commission has made recently in France.

After reading carefully this report which interested me very keenly, I can tell you that it represents precisely the actual situation of our Steel Industry.

With my best thanks, I remain, Yours very truly,




IN spite of the tremendous nature of the present war and its duration for more than two years at the time of our visit, comparatively little of France had been visited with the indescribable destruction marking the struggle. No war in history has been so intense, and few wars have been so long confined to such small areas as that on the western front.

It was about the first of October that we reached Belfort, and here we saw the first signs of havoc wrought by gunfire. At Paris we had been within twenty miles of the battlefield where the German hosts were first turned back, but there was not much ruin wrought to buildings at the Marne. Men, unprotected by trenches or any of the later found defensive methods, bore the brunt of the cannon there.

At Belfort we saw signs of bombardment, but they were not so shocking. The shell fire had been at long range and was apparently brief and inaccurate. This seemed to be the case at all of the towns between Belfort and St. Die. Apparently the Germans had not used so many heavy guns in this region, or perhaps they had not yet become so desperate and ruthless as later on. At any rate, it was at St. Die where we first saw a whole town ruined.

The ruined portion of France extends in a narrow strip around the frontier from the Alps to the North Sea. Very little of this section, about three hundred and twenty-five miles in length and varying from ten to fifty miles in breadth, escaped the fearful blast of war. Few towns located in it can ever be restored to their original condition.

After the great German army had crushed Liege and captured Antwerp, one section came up the valley of the Meuse and the other up the valley of the Schelde, uniting at a point between Namur and Mons. At the latter place Sir John French had gathered his hastily formed army of one hundred and twenty-five thousand men, and with this made a gallant defense. The British were soon forced back with tremendous losses, but they delayed the Germans until the French army, hastily mobilized on the German frontier east of Paris, could be reformed on the Marne. The great German machine drove rapidly down the valleys over the wide and splendid roads, forcing the English backward toward the sea and spreading out to meet the French front so hastily interposed between it and Paris. In this way the German line became extremely long before the Battle of the Marne began. The Kaiser's army had spread itself out like a fan. I was shown maps illustrating this mightiest of all military movements, and it was made plain how the English, hanging on the German flank, had placed the invaders in such a position that a skillful attack at the right time and in the right place forced them to fall back and strengthen their lines.

[Illustration: Ruins of Village—St. Die.]

It was while they were attempting to do this that the French attacked them with all the fierceness of patriots defending their most beloved city. Then what the German commander, Von Kluck, had meant to be only a halt to reform his lines became a retreat that ended only when the Teutons had gained the hills beyond the Aisne. In their retreat they destroyed, or the French were forced to destroy, most of the towns in a section fifty miles wide and two hundred miles long—the fairest part of France—Artois and Champagne.

The surge of battle—such a battle as the world never saw before—swept over all these towns, but it was strange to see how much more some of them suffered than others. At Belfort, the town famous for withstanding sieges, comparatively little harm was done. Rambevillers, in the path of the stream of destruction, was almost unharmed. Gerbeviller, on the other hand, was entirely destroyed, probably out of revenge for the stubborn opposition of its defenders. St. Die was badly wrecked, as were Raon l'Etape and Baccarat.

It was the same all along the front. We saw some towns absolutely ruined, others very badly damaged, and still others in which the shells seem to have fallen in places where they did little harm, or where, perhaps, there was not time for the complete shelling that had made heaps of brick and stone of other thriving towns.

The smaller towns appeared to have suffered worse than the large cities. Nancy was badly battered, but not entirely destroyed. Reims, which was under the fire of German guns for many months, and where the wonderful cathedral was destroyed, apparently with malice, had lost about one-fourth of its buildings by fire and explosions resulting from the bombardment.

In the country, the territory once occupied by the Germans and now in possession of the French is seamed with trenches and pitted with shell craters in all directions. To all appearances about every foot of it has seen the tread of either French soldiers or their foes. Back from the lines a short distance in some cases, the fields had become green again, and the trees were trying to send forth new growth from then-burned and battered trunks; but it will be a long time before this part of France loses all of its scars. The filling of the trenches and leveling of the fields will be no mean task of itself. Few farm houses, which in France are built in groups of half a dozen or so, are to be seen. Stone heaps fill their places.

The roads over which we passed were in good condition, having been kept in repair. We were told, however, that many of the finest roads near the front had been badly torn up and that it would require much work to restore them. Hundreds of bridges have been destroyed, and most of the rivers and canals, of which there are many, are now crossed by temporary structures.

We were given a glimpse of the complicated system of railroads, built in large part since the war and to supply the armies with food and other necessaries. These roads were all laid hurriedly, but they seem to be in good condition and are invaluable to the French. Some of them have been laid with rails taken up in other places where they were not so badly needed. In this system of railroads and roads one gets a striking illustration of the huge task it is to feed an army.

The Commission was given figures showing the total number of buildings destroyed in France, with an estimate of their value. These figures had been compiled in July, 1916, and were reasonably accurate at the time we were there, since the Germans had yielded little ground in the interim and there had been less wanton destruction than in the first months of the war. According to this official report, more than half the houses had been destroyed, either by flames or gunfire, in one hundred and forty-eight towns. In the greater portion of these towns nearly all of the houses had been ruined. Besides this there were scores of towns suffering from gunfire which did not lose so large a part of their buildings. Among the buildings destroyed were two hundred and twenty-five city halls, three hundred and seventy-nine schools, three hundred and thirty-one churches, and more than three hundred other public buildings of various kinds and sizes. The mills and factories, like all of the larger buildings, suffered severely, more than three hundred having been totally destroyed.

[Illustration: The Prefecture at Reims after Bombardment.]

Most of the towns suffering were of the smaller class, although four cities of more than one hundred thousand people were bombarded or burned by the Germans. These are Lille, Roubaix, Nancy and Reims. The section swept by the German advance and suffering even worse in the retreat is the most populous in France. It covered about ten thousand square miles. No one has yet undertaken to figure the loss in property sustained in this region. The Germans have still possession of about five million acres of French soil, including seventy per cent, of the iron ore mines and a large part of the coal supply.

The farmers are already back at work on a great part of the territory ravaged by the war. Farming under such conditions as we saw, where men and women worked in the fields within range of the guns and amid their constant roaring, or with the eternal white crosses for company, may be more exciting than the usual occupation of the agriculturist, but it must be a sad, discouraging and difficult task.



PERHAPS no other man in France is so talked of so much as General Joffre. Certainly he is the idol of the French people. They look on him as their hero and savior, and his name is mentioned among them with a sort of half-worship. No other people have ever depended on their leaders as have the French. They believe with the right sort of leadership they can do anything. This is the impression you get in talking to them. They say that since the Franco-Prussian War they have looked forward to the time when they might have a general with Napoleon's genius and some other name—for even the name Napoleon now prevents a man from fighting for France, at least if he is of the royal line.

You may be certain that we all looked forward to meeting this great man. We did not meet him after all at close range, having to content ourselves with a view of the busiest man in France as he rode by in an automobile at top speed.

General Joffre, as we learned, has been at the head of the French Army for two years before the war. He first came into notice when, at the last grand maneuvers, he jarred military circles and greatly pleased the people by unceremoniously dismissing from their command five gold-laced generals whose methods did not meet with his approval.

But Joffre first showed what sort of stuff was in him when he met the Germans at the Marne. It will be recalled that the French, never suspecting that Germany would invade Belgium and having all their military plans laid for mobilizing on the German frontier, were more or less demoralized when they found an entirely new line of defense necessary. They had no railroads built to help reform their line, and the moving of a vast army is a perplexing task. Without a leader in whom the whole army had supreme confidence, and with the German host sweeping across Belgium and hurling back the English, it would have been a hopeless situation.

But while what the Kaiser called "Sir John French's contemptible little army" was holding back for a few days the German onrush at terrific cost, Joffre was busy realigning his forces between the invaders and his beloved Paris, which seemed doomed to all but him. He had studied the situation carefully and detected the fact that the long flank of Von Kluck's army left an opening. This opening was found by the Army of Paris, augmented in every possible way and finally reinforced by every available soldier, rushed from Paris in every kind of automobile to be found. The Germans were stopped at the Marne—twenty miles from Paris. Not only was the capital of France saved, but the invaders were steadily driven back until they were sixty miles away before they could make a successful stand.

[Illustration: Portrait in Tapestry—General Joffre.]

It was then that France found Joffre, so the people say. Up to that time they had heard little of him and nobody knew who he was or where he had come from. At once they began to inquire. Few of the soldiers had ever seen him, and there had been nothing much in the newspapers about the man who had managed all this.

After the Germans had been forced across the Aisne and there was time to breathe, the French decided to have a review of that part of the army that could be spared. It was here that everybody watched for Joffre. The French tell it in their own way and it is interesting to hear one of them explaining, with the usual gestures, just how the hero looked on the day of that review.

It was not much of a display of military style. The troops reviewed had been in the thick of the fight and there was an enormous amount of mud. There was no reviewing stand except a muddy elevation, on which the commander was to stand. Nobody seemed to know where he was or where he would come from, but it was passed around that he was to be there and the soldiers watched for him eagerly. Most of them thought that he was a little, fat man. They had unconsciously absorbed this idea from pictures of Napoleon, and, forgetting the terrible stress of the past weeks in the temporary flush of victory, they expected to see their general come to the stand with a blaze of glory. They looked for silken flags and gaudy uniforms and a regular French military parade. This was as little as they thought would do proper honor to the victorious commander of the Allied armies, and they were right, because General Joffre is at the head of the greatest force of men ever gathered together.

As you are told about this in France, the day came and at the spot selected for the review, an open field somewhat back of the lines, with plenty of freshly planted crosses in sight and evidence all around that the peace and quiet had not always been there, a few generals and officers gathered. Finally, a regimental band, playing the first martial music heard since before the battle of the Marne, swung out of the woods at the head of a body of troops.

Then a large man, tall and heavy and wearing an ordinary soldier's overcoat, but with the laurel band around his hat that showed him to be a general, came out of the woods behind the little knoll and walked rapidly toward the group of officers. Every hand went up in salute. Then they knew it was Joffre. He went to the muddy knoll, and stood there watching keenly while the soldiers marched past, the bugles blowing and the bands playing.

In spite of their muddy uniforms and the hard fight they had just gone through, the French say that these soldiers looked spic and span as they passed their general. Their rifles went up in salute as straight and accurately as if they had just come from quarters and were marching over a level parade ground, instead of over fields filled with shell holes and slippery with mud—or perhaps something worse.

Joffre is a silent man, they say. This does not interfere in the least with the adoration of the French, who are usually great talkers. They believe in him to the utmost, and they will follow him to the limit of endurance. So long as Joffre is at the head of the French army, the spirit of victory will remain.

Since Joffre has become famous, of course much is known about him. He was born in the Midi, as they call the southern part of France. Trained as a soldier, he saw service in the East, where he did that which he set out to do. There is no particular incident that points to the discovery of his genius, although he must have done unusual things to get to the top. He is known to have been a modest, quiet, home-loving sort of man, spending much time with his family at Auteil, and showing while there that he was very fond of fishing. Fishing is a good recreation for the man who wants to think, and the French believe that while Joffre was doing that he must have been evolving plans for settling with the hated Germans. He likes to fish yet, and when he can get away from the war zone, he hunts a small stream and spends his leisure hours along it.

During his brilliant career since the war began Joffre has developed some of the qualities notable in our own General Grant. There is not a particle of show or bluster about him. He dresses as plainly as possible, talks little and seems to prefer solitude. But his will is imperious and he does not hesitate when anything is to be done, whether it is pleasant or otherwise. For his men he has the greatest consideration, but they say in France that, like Lincoln, he has little regard for Generals. Some of the things told about him remind you of the story of Lincoln. In this story a Confederate raid had resulted in the capture of two generals and a number of privates. When the story was brought to Lincoln, he said it was too bad about the men. Someone suggested that it was a pity the generals had been taken, but Lincoln said that did not matter much, as he could make some more. Joffre has made it uncomfortable for the inefficient generals in France. Many of them have lost their commands and most of them live in fear of his quiet but inexorable discipline.

Joffre does not look kindly on visitors to the Front, and nobody gets there without his permission. He signed the passes on which the Commission traveled, but he did not seem overjoyed at our coming enough to look us up while we were there. Apparently he regarded us as people who could not help in his big job and who were likely in some way or other to become nuisances.

When you talk with people who know this man you are at once impressed with the fact that he appreciates his great responsibility and that there is nothing on his mind but how to win this war for France. They say he has a clipping bureau that saves for him all that is being printed about the war. He probably expects to read it somewhere after the war is over, but he will not likely be able to do this in the remainder of an ordinary lifetime.

Time only will decide whether Joffre is really a great military genius, or whether he is merely a good general, conscientiously doing his best and fortunate enough to become a popular hero. Modern war is so different from old time variety that no one can judge results up to this time. It is at least certain that Joffre has beaten the Germans back and back, slowly, but surely forcing them out of France. He says himself that he "has been nibbling at them."

There can be no doubt that at the time this is written he has reached the pinnacle of fame in France. He is the man in all France who is most talked about, most admired and most trusted. Were he to die now, as Kitchener died, his place in History would be secure. What will happen before the war is over is another matter. But, having heard the French talk about "Father Joffre" so much and so lovingly, and having been given the most useful thing in France, if you want to see the front—a pass by him in spite of the great cares resting on his shoulders, I hope that fate will be kind to him and that he will remain the idol of his people to the end.

As might be expected, France is full of the sayings of Joffre. Everyone you meet can tell you a new one. Some of the aphorisms credited to him that I can now recall are: "Go where the enemy is not expecting you"; "No soldier is expected to think of retreating"; "Now is the time to stand and die rather than yield". This last is said to have been his utterance before the beginning of the Battle of the Marne.



WHILE no estimate can be made of the cost of rebuilding the towns and cities destroyed in France until after the war is over and it is known what further damage has been done, this matter is already receiving earnest consideration. The French are confident of victory and are satisfied that they will soon be able to rebuild their cities and reorganize their industries. They are a frugal and thrifty people, and usually have more private means than the average American whose manner of living would indicate that he is wealthy. On this account it is my impression that France will recover very rapidly after the war and will soon be as well off in property as before it began.

The chief loss of the French is likely to be their young manhood. Houses can be rebuilt. Factories will spring up over night where there is capital and faith to invest it. Even the fine old cathedrals may be restored or replaced with something that will serve equally well in a practical sense. But the young men—the flower of the French nation—whose lives have been offered on the altar of national defense—these cannot be replaced. Generations must pass before the terrific price of national existence will be fully paid in this direction.

Most Frenchmen feel this way about the situation. From a material standpoint they expect to soon be as well off as ever. They do not seem to mind the loss in wealth destroyed by the great war. But they are bowed down with grief at the thought of the young men who have been slain and the years that will be required to replace them. Although they do not care to discuss this phase of the situation, the French have already begun nobly to meet the problem of the lame, halt and blind who are a part of the legacy of every war and an exceedingly prominent part of that left by this one.

It is surprising to learn that the Belgians, whose little country has been crushed under the heel of the invader so that its government retains only a narrow corner behind the British army, are even more optimistic than the French. They are determined that the Germans must be driven out and are already laying elaborate plans for reconstruction of their farms and villages and cities. Almost before the Commission had reached Paris we were asked by the Belgians to hold a meeting with their chamber of commerce in that city in order to discuss the problems of Belgium's rehabilitation.

[Illustration: Ruins at Nancy.]

When this meeting did finally take place, on October 16th, we were all impressed with the pathetic earnestness of the Belgians upon this subject. Some of the most prominent citizens of Belgium took part in the discussion. It was easy to see, even from the meagre translations we were able to get on the moment, that the Belgians realize that they have been martyrs and expect the world to render them substantial aid when the time comes to restore their national entity and rebuild their war torn country. In fact I was compelled to admit with reluctance that their enthusiasm was greater than their business acumen, for they seemed to have very little tangible information on which plans could be laid for helping them.

It was explained afterward that these Belgians have no means of securing the information they need, as the Germans have almost absolute possession of their country and are, as might be expected, not furnishing any information as to the amount of destruction, or the quantity of materials which can be used again, or in any other way. It is stated that the Germans have practically looted the whole country, carting off the machinery in most of the factories, and even forcing the Belgians to work on military defenses to be used against them and their allies. Under such conditions it was not to be expected that the Belgian chamber of commerce would be in possession of definite information. The impassioned belief of these gentlemen in the magnanimity and wealth of America was inspiring, and I sincerely hope that when the time comes to reconstruct this stricken land our people will have as large a part as the Belgians expect and one much more generous than they have had in the saving of the Belgians from starvation.

[Illustration: Trenches Occupied by French Soldiers]

At this meeting I heard many kind things said about the Americans who are working in Belgium and about how much this country has done to save the people there from suffering. Great praise was also given to the English, who have aided most nobly to prevent the absolute destruction of the Belgian nation.



TO the members of our Commission one of the most interesting things found in France was the organization of chambers of commerce, or bodies whose purpose is to promote the industrial and financial welfare of the communities where they exist. Unlike the situation in America, where chambers of commerce are purely local organizations, without power or even much prestige in the regulation of municipal affairs, the French have a system of such bodies that is probably the most important single force to be reckoned with in the republic.

We were entertained at almost every city where we made a stop by the chamber of commerce, and were given every opportunity to ascertain how these organizations work. We found their system admirable, and many features of it should be copied in this country. Before this can be done, however, we must have more liberal and sensible legislation on the question of co-operation among productive organizations.

The French chambers of commerce are officially recognized by the government and given certain powers which, to a large extent, place every community under their care, at least in so far as its business interests and development of its resources go. No chamber can be organized except by governmental decree, and this provision naturally prevents them from interfering with the legitimate prerogatives of the government, while giving them powers that enable them to be of real service to the community.

Everywhere we went we found that the chamber of commerce was regarded as the guardian of the public interest, and we were told how these bodies took action frequently with much success in matters that in this country would be regarded as far beyond the scope of a chamber of commerce. They have power to represent the towns where they exist in all matters regarding industrial, agricultural and transportation problems. They are under the direct control of the department of industry, and the charter of each is signed by the minister of commerce then in office. Their members are elected much as we elect regular city officials, and the number cannot be less than nine or more than twenty-one, except in Paris, where there are forty at this time. The number is fixed for each chamber by government decree and depends on the population of the district. The members must be thirty years of age and citizens in good standing. Bankrupts are not allowed to serve. In every way these bodies are made thoroughly representative of the best citizenship, and it is regarded as quite an honor to be permitted to serve on them without pay.

These chambers usually meet twice each month and they keep in close touch with each other, working out plans that will be for the good of the whole country as well as for their special localities. Many of the largest undertakings in France have been begun and carried out largely by chambers of commerce. The new port at Marseilles, which will cost about two hundred million francs, is an example. For this work the chamber of commerce raised six million francs, the government provided a like amount, and with this the chamber was able to finance the improvement, depending on tolls and other revenues to pay the balance in due time.

The feature which appealed most strongly to me in these chambers of commerce was the manner in which they are dovetailed with the government in the performance of duties of a nature such as, in spite of their tremendous importance, we Americans generally regard as nobody's business in particular, and which are therefore usually left undone.

A national organization of chambers of commerce is maintained in Paris. Part of the expense of each chamber, as well as of this body, is paid by the government. The secretaries of the local chambers have also an organization, and all these seem to work in perfect harmony for the general good. The secretaries are usually professionals, and special courses of training may be had in France for this work.

We found that nearly every chamber had its own building and that all were handsomely housed, well financed and extremely effective. They have become a most important part of the government, handling with success many problems that are difficult for a government and which, at the same time, require a certain amount of governmental authority if they are to be disposed of in an efficient manner.

In my opinion this country could copy the French system of chambers of commerce with much profit. We are in advance of them in many things, especially in the matter of industrial operations, but they are a century in advance of us in the co-operation needed between the citizens and the government for the highest development of community life and progress.



SO much interest has been expressed in the new method of treating wounds discovered by Dr. Carrel and bearing his name, and the subject being of such great importance to the cause of humanity and the preservation of human life, I have thought it worth while to give here the following authoritative descriptions of this new and epochal discovery in the science of medicine. It is now generally known as the Carrel-Dakin treatment.

Reference has been made to meeting Dr. Sherman in London. On discovering that this physician had enjoyed considerable experience with the Carrel treatment and was thoroughly familiar with it, I invited him to deliver an address on this subject at my home town after his return from Europe. He readily agreed to do this, speaking to an interested audience under the auspices of the Mahoning County Medical Society on Dec. 19, 1916. A newspaper account of this address is appended. This will, in a measure, serve to show the importance of the Carrel treatment.

Out of the horror and carnage that is raging across the seas some inconceivable good must come. This is the opinion of all who have been close to the din of battle, who have visited hospitals and seen with their own eyes the human wrecks wrought by grape shot, shrapnel and bursting shells. Dr. William O'Neill Sherman's visit to this city Tuesday night, when he opened the eyes of the medical profession here to new and greater things, is the first inkling of one great good that is to come out of this war. To treat the millions of wounded and maimed, medical genius has been taxed to the limit. As in all great times, great minds have come to the rescue and found a way. The old saying that where there is a will there is a way, has been clearly proven.

Particularly is this true in the medical world. Dr. Sherman came here from Pittsburgh, the invited guest of the Mahoning County Medical Society, at the suggestion of J. G. Butler, Jr., who wanted him to tell the physicians of this city and county the many things he had learned by close application and association with conditions in European hospitals and trenches. Dr. Sherman was filled with an enthusiasm that he made every man who attended the annual banquet of the Mahoning Medical Society feel. Particularly was he anxious to bring the local medical fraternity to a realization of the methods and treatments developed by the horrible carnage raging now in the European countries. He drove home his point without gloves when he told physicians of Youngstown that medical men throughout this country were given too much to criticising new methods rather than investigating them.

The Carrel method, he explained at length. It is simply a newly discovered antiseptic solution, conceived by Dr. Alexis Carrel, which sterilizes wounds and arrests infection and inflammation before they have an opportunity to spread and result in blood poisoning and death.

[Illustration: Proclamation Posted in Reims Just Before the French Fell Back to the Marne. (See Chap. XXV.)]




At the moment when the German army is at our gates, and will probably enter the city, the municipal authorities request you to preserve all your presence of mind, and all calmness necessary to permit you to undergo this trial.

There must not be any manifestations, any riotous gatherings, any outcries to trouble the tranquility of the streets. Public Service, Charity, Health, and street maintenance should continue to be safe. You must co-operate with us. You must remain in the city to help the unfortunate. We shall remain with you at our post to defend your interests.

It does not devolve upon you, the population of an unfortified city, to alter events. It does devolve upon you not to aggravate the consequences. To this end it is necessary to keep silence, dignity and prudence.

We rely upon you, you may rely upon us.

Reims, September 3, 1914.


Mr. Butler said to visit European capitals is to witness a revelation difficult to convey in mere words. Soldiers of every nationality are treated by the expert and world famed in medicine. Human wrecks, victims of shot and shell, are repaired and rebuilt. It matters little whether a man is friend or foe, as long as a spark of life is there, he is picked tenderly from the trench and everything known to medical science done to bring about his recovery.

The mind is filled with horror and wonder of it all. New thoughts bombard the mind as one looks on. A man is brought in. His face is practically shot away. It seems that even should he recover he will be so disfigured that life will not be worth the living. The Carrel solution is applied. By plastic surgery and other means the disfigured mass is shaped. In a few short weeks the man again begins to resemble a human being and eventually is well, with little more than a few indistinct scars. Not infrequently he returns to the trenches. Some of the things that shock the mind are metal jaws, screened behind false beards, artificial noses, ears, cheeks, eyes and limbs. Sometimes when a man is facially disfigured beyond repair, that is, when nature can never replace the countenance, a copper mask is fitted. These sculptors in flesh-and-blood do their work with such precision and accuracy that it is startling and cannot be believed unless it is seen.

The war has seen the springing up of many hospitals of special character. There are groups of institutions where only faces are treated, eyes, ears and nose, maimed limbs, etc. Medical attention in most cases begins in the trenches and the patient is carefully watched while being transported to the hospital. By sterilizing wounds shortly after they occur, infection and pus are robbed of their chance to hinder nature and the patient recovers in a few weeks from a frightful wound that if infected would take that many months. There are many things of today that help in the preservation of human life. The highly developed X-ray has played an important part in this great war. Electricity, new antiseptics and anaesthetics have been at the finger's end of the skilled medical profession, to work what can honestly be called miracles and wonders.

One of the strange things of this great war is the fact that new, unheard of diseases are developed. It has tended to make common rare diseases and greatly increased those that are usual. Thousands die, having no mark upon their body. Post-mortems held have disclosed in nearly every case that such deaths were caused by shell shock. Bombs from the huge guns dropping near a company of men will often so disarrange organs that death follows quickly. Many who survive lose mind, sight, hearing, speech, and so on. This has become one of the common things of this great war. As a result the warring countries will find themselves confronted with a new and difficult problem when peace comes and normal times are again established. There will be hundreds of thousands to pension and no doubt insane institutions will have to be enlarged. Rest is often a saviour. Men taken away from the fronts, minds blank, in the quiet of home often regain their reason. There is the large percentage that God in his goodness does not see fit to restore that will form an elephantine problem. There will have to be vast pension lists, for these men often have large families.

The way men may be pieced and patched together is one of the finds of the new medical era. It has been discovered that bones in legs and arms practically shot in two can be brought together by means of silver and vanadium steel plates fitted with screws and that the bones will knit and after a period the afflicted can walk almost as satisfactorily as if nothing had happened. Dr. Sherman while in this city this week displayed a steel plate that he worked out and used with marked success in the hospitals of France. These plates are applied in what would seem to be a very simple manner. A man may have a leg or an arm practically shot off. By placing the broken bones together, after a treatment with the Carrel solution to keep down infection, a plate is fitted on either side of the fracture and screws are applied. This holds the two members solidly together and in a few short weeks the bones knit. In time this place is practically the strongest part of the limb. What this means can best be told by explaining that before the discovery, an arm or a leg so badly shattered was simply amputated because this was the only safe and logical way to save the life of the individual. In the olden days gangrene would invariably set in and the patient die within a short time unless amputation was performed promptly following the accident.

Dr. Carrel has gone a long way to eliminate this danger.


Having seen with my own eyes the wonderful results of this treatment during my visits to the American Ambulance and other hospitals in France, I requested Mr. Laurence V. Benet, superintendent of the American Ambulance, to furnish me with an authoritative description of the treatment. The chief purpose of this is to enable medical authorities in this country, particularly those connected with hospitals maintained by iron and steel plants, to gain a reliable outline of the treatment. Dr. Benet, in spite of the fact that he is one of the busiest men in France, kindly agreed to furnish this information. In doing so he accompanied the description with the following letter:

1 Avenue De Camoens
Paris, October 26, 1916.

Mr. Joseph G. Butler, Jr., Youngstown, O.

My dear Mr. Butler:—

In compliance with my request, Dr. Joseph Lawrence, of the American Ambulance, has kindly prepared a short note on the Carrel treatment of wounds, and this I am now enclosing. I trust that you will find it sufficiently explicit for your purposes, and that it will be of use and interest to you.

Now that you are again home I hope that your wonderful trip in France will be less than a mere memory and that the labors of the Industrial Commission will prove, as they should, most valuable to the manufacturers and exporters of the United States. Believe me that it was to me a great privilege as well as a great pleasure to have met you and your distinguished colleagues, and that my only regret is that I was unable to be of greater use to the Commission.

I am, with very kind regards,

Sincerely yours,


1 encl.

The Carrel Treatment of Wounds.

The Carrel treatment consists in thorough irrigation guided by the bacteriological observation of the wound.

For the irrigation of the wound, Carrel has chosen a certain size of rubber tube about 4 mm. in diameter into which he punches small holes at intervals. The one end of this tube is shut, the other end is allowed to protrude from the dressing.

On the surface wound, the tube is laid over the wound in the direction of the greatest diameter of the wound with the open end towards the most elevated part.

In perforating wounds, the tube or several tubes, when the wound is large, are passed through from both sides, or pushed into cavities or pockets that may exist.

If the wound is not a perforating wound, but a deep wound, the tubes are planted deep into the cavity that may be formed. These tubes are always of sufficient number to thoroughly irrigate the broken surface.

Over the uninjured skin, about the wound, is placed thin strips of gauze which have been steeped in vaseline, the skin having been thoroughly washed before with soap and water.

To keep these tubes in place, a bandage wet with Dakin's solution is placed over them. The wound is flushed every two hours with Dakin's solution. The amount of solution used per wound, varies in proportion to the size of the wound from 500 c.c. per day up. Wounds are dressed daily.

The bacteriological observation is made by taking a smear from the most vicious part of the wound at intervals of two or three days. The number of bacteria on these smears is noted and counted per oil immersion field. A count of more than 75 bacteria per field is considered infinity. When there are less than 10 bacilli to the field, and not less than 5 to the field, three fields are counted. When less than 5, and not less than 7, five fields are counted. When less than one, from five to twenty fields will be counted.

A wound that retains a count of one bacillus to two fields or less for three observations, is considered bacteriologically clean, and suitable for operation. If the wound is a compound fracture, it is advisable to close the wound, converting it into a simple fracture.

If this can be done without exerting too great tension on the sutures.

If the wound is a flesh wound, and can be drawn together without too great tension, its closure is indicated.


The important parts of the treatment consist in thorough irrigation, and careful bacteriological observation. The bacteriological observations are charted on charts similar to temperature charts.

Dakin's Solution.
(Sodium Hypochlorite at 0.50%)

1—To prepare 10 litres of solution, weight exactly:
 Chloride of Lime (Bleaching Powder)200 grms.
 Carbonate of Soda (dried)100 grms.
     or if used in crystals200 grms.
 Bi-carbonate of Soda200 grms.
2—Put the Chloride of Lime into a large mouthed bottle of about 12 litres capacity. Add 5 litres of water (half the quantity) and shake well two or three times. Let this stand all night.
3—Dissolve in another 5 litres of water of two Soda salts.
4— this latter solution directly into the bottle containing the maceration of lime. Stir well and let the solution stand in order to allow the precipitate of Carbonate of Lime to settle.
5—At the end of half an hour, siphon the clear liquid and filter by means of a paper, in order to have a perfectly clear solution. This should be kept away from the light.
6—No heat should be employed in the manufacture of Dakin's and
ordinary Tapwater should be used.

Preparation of Dakin Solution.

Technique of Dr. Daufresne.

The solution of sodium hypochlorite for surgical use must be free of caustic alkali; it must only contain 0.45% to 0.50 of hypochlorite. Under 0.45% it is not active enough and above 0.50 it is irritant. With chloride of lime (bleaching powder) having 25% of active chlorine, the quantities of necessary substances to prepare ten litres of solution are the following:—

Chloride of Lime (bleaching powder) 25% CI act.200 gr.
Sodium Carbonate, dry (Soda of Solway)100 gr.
Sodium Bi-carbonate80 gr.

Pour into 12 litre flask the two hundred grammes of chloride of lime and five litres of ordinary water, shake vigorously for a few minutes and leave in contact for six to twelve hours, one night for example. (Shake until dissolved) at least the big pieces are dissolved, large pieces float—notice only floating pieces. At the same time, dissolve in five litres of cold ordinary water the carbonate and bi-carbonate of soda.

After leaving from six to twelve hours, pour the salt solution in the flask containing the macerated chloride of lime, shake vigorously for a few minutes and leave to allow the calcium carbonate to be precipitated. In about half an hour, siphon the liquid and filter with a double paper to obtain a good, clear liquid, which should always be kept in a dark place.

Tritration of Chloride of Lime (Bleaching Powder).

Because of the variation of the products now obtained in the market, it is necessary to determine the quantity of active chlorine contained in the chloride of lime which is to be used. This, in order to employ an exact calculated quantity according to its concentration. The test is made in the following manner:—

Take from different parts of the bar a small quantity of beaching powder to have a medium sample, weigh 20 grammes of it, mix as well as possible in a litre of tap water and leave in contact for a few hours. Measure 10 c.c. of the clear liquid and add 20 c.c. of a 10% solution of potassium iodide, 2 c.c. of acetic acid or hydrochloric acid, then put drop by drop into the mixture a decinormal solution of sodium hyposulfite (2.48%) until decoloration. The number "N" of cubic centimeters of hyposulfite employed multiplied by 1,775 will give the weight "N" of active chloride contained in 100 grammes of chloride of lime.

The test must be made every time a new product is received. When the result obtained will differ more or less than 25%, it will be necessary to reduce or enlarge the proportion of the three products contained in the preparation. This can be easily obtained by multiplying each of the three numbers—200, 100, 60 by the factor N/25 in which N represents the weight of the active chlorine per cent of chloride of lime.

Measure 10 c.c. of the solution, add 20 c.c. of potassium iodide 1/10, 2 c.c. of acetic acid and drop by drop a decinormal solution of sodium hyposulfite until decoloration. The number of cubic centimeters used multiplied by 0.03725 will give the weight of the hypochlorite of soda contained in 100 c.c. of the solution.

Never heat the solution and if in case of urgency one is obliged to resort to trituration of chloride of lime in a mortar, only employ water, never salt solution.

Test of Thetalkalinity of Dakin Solution:—

To easily differentiate the solution obtained by this process from the commercial hypochlorites, pour into a glass about 20 c.c. of the solution and drop on the surface of the liquid a few centigrammes of phenol-phthaleine in powder. The correct solution does not give any coloration while Lebarraque's solution and Rau de Javel will give an intense red color which shows in the last two solutions existence of free caustic alkali.

TECHNIQUE—Dakin Solution.

The procedure is very simple. The solution, however, must be between 45 to 50% hypochlorite. Anything above this strength will burn and anything below is too weak. The edges of the wound should be covered with gauze which has been well soaked in vaseline, the solution should then be introduced into the wounds from an irrigator every two hours. A stopcock should be put on the tube and only sufficient solution should be allowed to enter the wound to completely saturate all parts of the wound. In other words, the wounds should be bathed with the solution every two hours—do not mistake this and irrigate continuously. You can easily tell how much solution it takes to keep the wound wet.

Rubber tubes are used. The end of the tube is tied off and six to eight small perforations are made so that the solution can run into all parts of the wound. If the wounds are superficial, the same kind of a tube can be used to which a cuff of turkish towel is wrapped around the end of the tube.

If you feel that the wounds are sure to be infected, it would be well to lay them open freely and immediately start this treatment, be sure to have the skin well protected with the vaseline and gauze and see that the solution does not run out of the wound on the bed. Just keep the wound bathed every two hours.

I have been informed that a movement is on foot to inaugurate the use of this remarkable discovery in the United States military hospitals, and that the Rockefeller Foundation has in view the erection at New York of a large hospital where the treatment may be studied and still further perfected for the benefit of this country.

[Illustration: Proclamation by the Mayor of Reims Issued on the Day the Germans Entered that City, Sept. 4, 1914.]



Dear Citizens:

To-day and in the days following, many from among you, both prominent citizens and workmen, will be kept as hostages to guarantee to the German authorities the quiet and good order which your representatives have promised in your name.

It is to your security and to the safety of the City and to your proper interests that you do nothing which may break this agreement and compromise the future.

Have realization of your responsibility and facilitate our task.

Men, women, children, remain as far as possible in your homes, avoid all discussion.

We depend upon you to be equal to this occasion.

All riotous gathering is absolutely forbidden and will be immediately dispersed.

J. B. LANGLET, Mayor.



FEW who read this book have ever been in contact with actual war. In order that they may have an idea of what happens to a city which finds itself in the path of an irresistible enemy, some account will be given here of what happened to Reims, a city about the size of Youngstown, having a population of one hundred and twenty-five thousand and being situated on the north bank of the river Aisne, in north-eastern France.

When the Germans attacked France they hurled their great armies by three routes. Not only did they violate the neutrality of Belgium and Luxembourg, but they also sent an army across the frontier between Verdun and Belfort, this being the force stopped by the chasseurs at Gerbeviller, as has been told elsewhere. France had trusted too much and was in a desperate plight because her troops had been mobilized on the wrong front.

The first Germans crossed the frontier of little Luxembourg on the morning of August 2, 1914. They were met by the Grand Duchess, who disputed their passage and pleaded with them to turn back. Her little army of four hundred and thirty men could do nothing, and when she turned her car across the road the German soldiers gathered around and, on the order of their commander, pushed it to one side and passed on.

The Germans entered Belgian territory at Gemmenich on August 3, 1914. The next day they attempted to take by assault the city of Liege, Belgium's greatest industrial center, and failed. This city, with its ring of nine forts, blocked the passage of their troops and held the main roads into Germany. After a most bloody and unsuccessful assault, the Germans brought up their big guns and blew the forts to pieces. But they had been delayed five days. Then their hosts swept across Belgium and soon came in touch with the French and English. The English army of one hundred and twenty-five thousand men met them at Mons. The French met them between Mons and Verdun.

At this time the Allied lines swung like a huge gate from Verdun west toward the sea, barring the Kaiser's passage. The Germans then had a million of men, with hordes of the famous lancers, and clouds of these horsemen hung on the right flank of the English, swinging out and around them so as to force Sir John French to fall back or suffer the turning of his flank. Von Kluck was in command of this turning movement, which was made possible by the fall of Namur, Lille and Charleroi. Things then looked desperately bad for the Allies.

[Illustration: First Order From the Invaders.]



Having taken possession of the City and the fortress of Reims I command the following:

Railroads, routes of communications, both telegraph and telephone, not only of the City of Reims, but also throughout the immediately outlying districts, must be protected against all possibility of destruction; it is absolutely necessary to protect by a minute surveillance the public buildings along the lines of communication. The City will be held responsible for disobedience to this order: the guilty ones will be pursued and shot; the City will be levied for considerable contributions.

I add also that it will be to the interest of the population to conform to the foregoing commands, at the same time going about their ordinary occupations; thus the inhabitants will avoid having new and serious losses.

Commander in Chief.

This notice on a white card, 45 by 56 centimeters, was posted on the walls of the City of Reims by German authority during the occupation of September 4th to 12th, 1914.

As they were forced back toward Paris, not so much by actual fighting as by the necessity to keep their lines clear and avoid the turning movement of the swift German division under Von Kluck, the Allied armies swung, like a gate with its hinges at Verdun and the outer edge at Mons, back until they stretched between Verdun and Paris. This movement uncovered the beautiful city of Reims, with its countless art treasures, its magnificent cathedral and its thriving population of more than a hundred thousand people, all of which, as the swinging movement continued, were left to the mercy of the German army. The French evacuated Reims with nothing more than some rear-guard fighting and fell back southward to take their places in the great battle line which Joffre had planned somewhere north of Paris—on the Marne, as it was later evident.

As the Allied forces swung backward to this then unknown position, they were hard pressed by the advancing German hosts. Their retreat will stand as one of the most masterly in history, for during ten days these vast armies retired more than two hundred miles on their left flank without disorder and without excessive loss of men or material.

The English army occupied the side toward the sea in these grand maneuvers for position. Sir John French moved swiftly backward, fighting as he went and constantly swinging outward to prevent Von Kluck from encircling his flank. On the morning of September 3rd, he reached a point between Paris and the sea, actually a little north of that city. Suddenly in response to orders from Joffre, he marched his tired troops through Paris to Lagny, twenty miles east of the capital, where he took up a position on the Marne front.

Von Kluck was almost in sight of Paris in hot pursuit of the English when he found how he had been tricked. He could not attack the defenses, and it was urgently necessary for him to join the main army on the Marne front. To do this he had to circle to the north, around the outer fortifications of Paris a much longer march than that of the English.

The French government had packed its belongings and left for Bordeaux on the morning of the day the English passed through Paris, and the people thought the Germans were about to besiege the city. All buildings in the line of fire had been destroyed, the civilian population sent south, and every preparation made for defense. Joffre only knew the real plan.

The Parisians were amazed when the Germans scarcely stopped in front of their city. They could not understand why Von Kluck should suddenly withdraw to the east, because they did not know how badly he was needed on the Marne front. But Von Kluck must have suspected, for it is said that he told an aide that, "We have met with a great misfortune."

Von Kluck was right, for the masterly strategy of Joffre had won the battle of the Marne before a shot had been fired in that historic struggle.

These facts were gleaned from military men whom we met in France. They show how little the civilian population of a military zone, or even the soldiers themselves, know of the movements in which they are engaged. Evidently Joffre had not confided his plans even to the government authorities at Paris, preferring to have the seat of government move and the population flee rather than take chances of these plans being learned by the enemy. So also at Reims.

The French who had been stubbornly defending the city they love best next to Paris from German "Kultur," were forced to move through Reims and to the south to take their place in the great battle line on the Marne. They went reluctantly and the Germans followed them into the city.

This explains the situation shown in the poster on page 245. The Germans were just outside of Reims on September 3rd, and the Mayor knew that the French army was moving south and leaving the city at their mercy. He counselled his people concerning their conduct, warning them to interfere in no rear-guard action such as was likely to occur. This proclamation was dated September 3, 1914.

[Illustration: Second German Proclamation.]



All authorities of the French Government and Municipal authorities are advised as follows:

1st—All peaceable inhabitants may follow their regular occupations in full security without being disturbed. Private property will be absolutely respected by the German troops. Provisions of all sorts suitable for the needs of the German army will be paid for as purchased.

2nd—If, on the contrary, the population dares in any form, whether openly or disguised, to take part in hostilities against our troops the most diverse punishments will be inflicted upon the guilty ones.

3rd—All firearms must be deposited immediately at the Mayor's office; all individuals bearing arms will be put to death.

4th—Whoever cuts or attempts to cut telegraph or telephone wires, destroys railroad tracks, bridges, roadways, or who plans any action whatsoever to the detriment of the German troops will be shot on the spot.

5th—The inhabitants of the city or of the villages who take part in the battle against our troops, who fire on our baggage trains or on our commissary, or who attempt to hinder any enterprises of the German soldiers, will be shot immediately.

The civil authorities alone are in a position to spare the inhabitants the terrors and scourge of war. They are the ones who will be responsible for the inevitable consequences resulting from this proclamation.

Chief of Staff, Major General of the German Army

White card, 45 x 56, posted on the walls of the city of Reims by German authority during the occupation of September 4th to 12th, 1914.

On September 4th the Germans entered Reims, having met with no resistance. They occupied the city without interruption until after the battle of the Marne, which historic struggle began at sunrise on September 6th and continued along a front of about 140 miles until September 12th.

In this battle, which was lost to the Germans because they had been out-maneuvered and compelled to shorten their front so that they were rolled up on both right and left wings, two million, five hundred thousand men were engaged—the greatest number taking part in one battle in the history of the world. Of these nine hundred thousand were Germans and the remainder Allies, principally French, the English having only a little more than one hundred thousand men in France at that time. On account of their superiority of numbers, the Allies were able to extend their front and thus threaten the Germans with envelopment at both ends of the long battle line, which reached from Meaux, twenty miles east of Paris, to the fortress of Verdun.

The losses in this tremendous battle are said to have been exceeded only by those of the battle of Flanders, which began October 13, and in which more than three hundred thousand men were slain. The losses at the Marne have never been officially stated.

[Illustration: Citizens Warned of Danger.]



The inhabitants are requested to abstain absolutely from touching shells which have not been exploded and are requested to notify immediately the police department, Rue de Mars regarding any such.

The least shock may cause the explosion of the projectile.

Reims, September 7, 1914. DR. LANGLET, Mayor.

Notice posted in Reims by order of the Mayor, September 7th, 1914.


Next followed the battle of the Aisne, in which the invaders were again defeated and forced to retreat. It was in this battle that the Germans made their last stand south of Reims. They had prepared strong positions on the right bank of this river as they moved toward Paris and in these tried to stem the tide of battle without avail. They were pushed back slowly out of these positions, some of which we were shown, and after being driven to the north of Reims, they began, on September 20th, the bombardment that destroyed the famous cathedral and many of the finest structures in the city.

It will be seen that the Germans, on their entry into Reims, guaranteed the safety of life and property. They had forgotten this when, on September 15, the victorious French reoccupied the city. Five days later, without reason or any other motive than revenge, the Germans, now making another stand in the trenches to the north of the city, opened fire on the cathedral and the bishop's palace nearby, destroying both beyond repair.

[Illustration: Citizens Warned that Hostages may be Hanged.]



In case a battle takes place today or very soon in the environs of Reims or in the city itself, the inhabitants are advised that they should keep absolutely calm and are not to take part in the battle in any manner. They must not attempt to attack isolated soldiers nor detachments of the German army. It is formally forbidden to build barricades or tear up pavement of the streets in such a fashion as to hinder the movement of the troops. In a word nothing must be done which will in any way tend to hinder the German army.

In order to insure sufficiently the safety of the troops and in order to keep the population of Reims calm, the persons named below have been taken as hostages by the commanding general of the German army. Those hostages will be hanged at the least sign of disorder. At the same time the city will be entirely or partially burned and the inhabitants hanged if any infraction whatsoever is committed against the preceding rules.

On the other hand if the city remains absolutely tranquil and calm, the hostages and the inhabitants will be placed under the safeguard of the German Army. By order of German authority,

Reims, September 12, 1914. DR. LANGLET, Mayor.


Both armies surged backward and forward over Reims twice, and it is not surprising that the city suffered severely. Nevertheless, the French officer who gave us the information outlined above was firmly of the opinion that the cathedral had been wantonly destroyed in revenge for the defeat and humiliation suffered by the German commanders at the Marne and the Aisne. Whatever may have been the motive, and regardless of how great may have been the excuse, the two illustrations of this splendid structure shown in a previous chapter are sufficient to stamp its destruction as a crime that can hardly be justified by the plea of military necessity.

Reims, when we saw it, with the story that is told by the proclamations reproduced, furnishes strong evidence that General Sherman was right when he described war.



IN closing this work it is my hope that the reader will consider that its inspiration and purpose have been stated with sufficient clearness, but in this final chapter I am venturing to record my general impressions of a truly great nation seen during a period which must be regarded as part of the most vital epoch in its history. This concluding chapter will have accomplished my purpose if it portrays the patriotic nationality of the French under existing conditions, in such manner as to be considered worthy of emulation in our own country.

During the necessarily brief and hurried visits made by our Commission to many parts of France, I met many notables, generals, under officers, parliament members, prefects, as well as great commercial leaders, but regret that owing to lack of time and my ignorance of the French language, opportunity for investigation and conversation with the bourgeoise was slight. Nevertheless it would be impossible to travel through afflicted France as our Commission did without experiencing an acute impression of the solidarity and quiet, determined patriotism of the French people. They stand as one to fight the war to a decisive finish. They treat the war as some gigantic job, about which there is to be no questioning, no weighing of sacrifices of life, comfort or finances, and which simply must go on until finished satisfactorily.

This development of the French character must come as a revelation to those who have in the past regarded the French as a volatile, frivolous, impulsive people, virile, yet lacking the accredited determination and persistency of the Teuton. This impression has been a great mistake. The faces of the men and women of France alike show no sign of vacillation. The French are counting the terrific cost, as becomes the thriftiest of nations, expecting to collect a bill that in their opinion has been running since the Franco-Prussian war and through the humiliating and irksome years which followed under the "favored nation" clause. From any other standpoint I believe few Frenchmen ever permit themselves to dwell upon the ruin and suffering the present cataclysm has brought upon their country.

Upon comprehending this attitude of the French, the thinking American cannot avoid speculation as to what would happen in these United States should a like emergency confront us. We may not dismiss such thought with the statement that such an emergency is impossible. It is a most unpleasant possibility and must be faced. We might be unconquerable, in the sense that Russia cannot be conquered because of her magnificent distances and natural barriers against a foe; but without the preparedness and the single-hearted patriotism of the French, an invader would find nothing in America to prevent him from working destruction beyond calculation and inflicting humiliation that would be even worse.

[Illustration: Postal-card Painted by Artist Soldier in French Trenches.]

As these lines are written we are still at peace with all the warring nations. Our neutrality has been preserved only by submitting to outrages such as have been endured without forcible protest by no other great nation in the history of the world. If our patience with Germany serves as an example to the world of how a great and magnanimous nation may make sacrifices to encourage peace, our policy will prove to be wise. If, on the other hand, it serves only to make the Germans believe that we are too mercenary or two weak-kneed to defend ourselves and thus encourages further transgressions, our peaceable policy will have been a great mistake. After an opportunity to observe at close hand the methods and motives of the German war party, I am frankly afraid that the latter situation will prove to be the outcome. We shall be indeed fortunate if we can keep out of the war that has involved half the civilized world.

Nations like men profit by experience. The French people have records of history and civilization extending beyond the days of the Roman Empire, and that civilization has gone steadily forward through many centuries. No wonder then that they excel us in many things; the wonder is that they do not excel in all. In architecture and the arts, France leads America. This must be admitted by any fair-minded person familiar with the facts. But in industrial affairs the story is different.

Our country has adopted more progressive and efficient methods in the industrial field than can be found in France, where efficiency is not the word so much as is the comfort of the workers. This is particularly true of the iron and steel business. We saw in France not a single steel plant that could compare in efficiency with the great plants of this country. By this is meant that in none of the plants visited was the output per man nearly so great or the share enjoyed by the worker nearly so large, as is the rule in this country. Since we did not see the plants to the north which had been captured by the Germans, perhaps it is not altogether fair to make this comparison. Nevertheless the same impression was gained in the inspection of other industrial operations. The French workman is more artistic but he does not move so rapidly or produce so much as does the American. Neither of course, does he enjoy so large a remuneration. On the whole, wages are much less in proportion to individual production in France than in this country.

To the resident of a country which has not had a war within the memory of a generation, it is hard to convey by written or printed words a just conception of what a great war means to any country involved. The outward, visible evidence of individual restraint was one of the most vivid things witnessed on our trip through France: at least this was the case with me and, I believe, with some others of the Commission.

In France the individual has disappeared; he has been swallowed by the State; the nation in its dire necessity, obeying the law of self-preservation has practically obliterated the individual as such. He has become simply a small part of a great whole, a whole so inconceivably more important than any of its parts that all of them are completely subordinated.

The average American citizen would resent with heat the regulations regarded as a matter of course in France. He would fume and fret and all but rebel, if asked to live as the French people are forced to live during the war.

From what we could learn the submersion of the individual is far greater in Germany than in France, but to a healthy American citizen, accustomed to doing about as he pleases so long as he is able to pay the price and injures no one else, there is abundant restriction on personal liberty at this time in France. Possibly under similar circumstances we would as a people show an equal spirit of self-repression for the benefit of the national welfare.

The first great lesson taught by war to the death—as this war is for all concerned—is the great outstanding fact that people as individuals must surrender their rights to the people as a whole. Obedience to constituted authority must be absolute. Personal tastes and interests must be ignored or suppressed. The whole nation must work as one man, under the direction of one head, to keep it from being made subject to some other nation having less regard for personal liberty and more respect for efficiency.

I took particular pains to ascertain directly and indirectly from all classes the feeling of the French people towards Germany and the Germans. Prior to the declaration of war it is safe to say the feeling was not wholly unfriendly. Only three months before war was declared a similar commission came from Germany. The German commissioners were treated with great consideration. Plants and industrial establishments were shown, views exchanged and entertainments were the order of the day, or rather of the night, and everything possible done by the French to foster a good feeling, having in mind increased trade facilities between the two nations. But after war was declared, French territory invaded and the unspeakable and unwritable deeds of the German soldiers made manifest, this previous feeling changed to one of hatred and revenge which it will take generations to eradicate.

In our intercourse with the French people a kindly appreciative feeling was manifest towards the English and Americans; a feeling of deep gratitude towards England for the great part she has taken in the war and to America for the generous aid and assistance rendered in many ways. Hospital work and the great aid rendered by American aviators were much dwelt upon, the personal work of American men and women being everywhere in evidence.

Since my return I have been asked by a great many people as to the revival or otherwise of religious feeling as the result of the war, also as to the food situation, the general appearance of the country in France, the manner in which the dwelling houses are built, the maintenance of public roads, the school system of France and its efficiency as well as to the conditions prevailing now compared with former visits. France has never been deeply religious. Catholicism prevails to a great extent at present and has for centuries, although certain parts of France are Protestant. Such divisions and subdivisions of Protestant churches as prevail in the United States are unknown. A Frenchman or a Frenchwoman is either a Catholic or Protestant. Religious feeling is no doubt deeper in the country districts than in the larger cities, and this is particularly true of the Catholics. From the brief talk I had with French people on this particular subject I should say the war has made no difference and the religious attitude is about the same. The thoughts of the French people are so concentrated upon the war and its consequences that but little else occupies their minds.

During our sojourn in France, food seemed plenty and we heard no complaint of shortage. The French are proverbially thrifty and can and do live comfortably upon the equivalent of what Americans waste. When a Frenchman finishes his meal there is nothing left on the plate, on dishes or in the glasses. This was particularly noticeable at all the banquets and luncheons which we attended.

We had but little opportunity of ascertaining prices. The market houses in the small villages seemed well stocked with provisions.

Going to school in France is a governmental affair as all the schools are run by the Government, excepting only the convent schools, where higher education is taught to private pupils. France contains many high grade "polytechnique" schools, arts, military and schools of mines, all regulated and managed through the government department of education. I should say the common school system is not as thorough as in Germany, where education is wholly compulsory. Military education and training in France is a part of the established system of the public schools and is rigidly enforced. There are schools for training of officers the equivalent of our own West Point. Children of the wealthier class in France are taught and trained by private tutors. Retired army officers are largely employed in the military schools.

Our journey through France was largely through the devastated districts. I am certain that when this portion of France is rebuilt it will be done on a more sanitary scale, as indicated by the beginning of the reconstruction by Miss Daisy Polk and her associates at Vitrimont.

I was specially impressed by the magnificent scenery we saw and passed through during the latter part of our journey. The French Alps are considered in scenic effects equal to the world famous views in Switzerland. We were treated by the authorities directing the movements of the military automobiles with a perilous night ride from Le Puy to St. Etienne. Starting about eight o'clock we were taken a distance of nearly a hundred miles around, over and across gorges, steep inclines and winding roads innumerable. We got through safely but were warned from time to time by the peasantry that the ride had never previously been attempted except in day-light. We were several times lost and traced and retraced our steps time and again. But few of the party knew of the real danger we had passed through until told the following day.

Concluding I may say adieu to the reader by adding that the Commission has issued a printed report of its labors, the information contained in that book being the joint and collaborative work of all the commissioners. I have availed myself of some of the information contained in the two chapters in this commission report "The Work of Reconstruction" and "French Business Organizations".

End of the Project Gutenberg EBook of A Journey Through France in War Time, by
Joseph G. Butler, Jr.


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